|Russian Revolution's Forum|
Modernization of Russia
Holy Russia - Third Rome
The new subject of international law, the State Holy Russia - Third Rome, 21.09.2013.
Nova Church of Holy Russia
Orthodoxy and Christianity require reforming and release of heresy and obscurantism. 21.09.2011.
Synchronization of historical and religious Chronicles New!!!
The author correctly synchronizes historical and religious Chronicles of the Ancient World based on a short chronology and linking events to unique celestial phenomena reflected in the annals and Scriptures. The author believes that discrepancies in dates, geographical localities and ethnic origin of historical and religious figures are due to erroneous traditional chronology and historical geography, as well as the deliberate adaptation of phenomena and events to an established paradigm. 20.04–25.05.2020.
Astronomical dating of Biblical events New!!!
The author's reconstruction of the history and chronology of religions is fully verified by identifying 15 celestial phenomena described in the Chronicles, including 11 Solar Eclipses, 3 Zodiacs and 1 Supernova. A chronological shift of 1780 years in the history of Ancient Egypt has been confirmed for 6 phenomena, including 3 Solar Eclipses and 3 Zodiacs, including the Eclipse of Pharaoh Takelot on August 8, 891. Astronomically confirmed the date of the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ as March 18, 1010, and the date of death of Ibrahim – the son of the Prophet Muhammad as February 7, 1152 (28 Shawwal 546 AH). 20.02–31.03.2020.
Origin of the gens Rurik New!!!
After the break of ties between the metropolis and the Russian principalities, the annals of Byzantium were cleared of the mention of "foreigners" in the management of the Empire, and the Chronicles of Russia did not have time to properly reflect the role of Rurik in world history. A study of the sources of Ancient Rome, New Rome, Russia, Arab countries, Danube and Volga Bulgaria allowed the author to identify the Russ gens and Bulgarian Khagans with the Flavian dynasty, as well as to identify Rurik, his descendants and relatives from the Macedonian dynasty (IX–XI century) and dynasty of Lecapenus (X century). The last Russian Emperor of New Rome been Yaroslav the Wise, throne name Constantine Monomachos. 11.09–21.10.2019.
Chronology of monotheistic religions New!!!
The author identified the Patriarchs of monotheism with well-known figures of human history. He proved that the oldest religion of monotheism is Christianity, which had a theoretical character in the I Millennium (Old Testament Christianity) and a practical embodiment at the beginning of the II Millennium (New Testament Christianity). Islam and Judaism emerged only in the early VII century and became radical branches of Christianity. Based on the study of solar eclipses, the author has determined the date and place of the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ (March 18, 1010 in Constantinople), the year of the death of the Prophet Muhammad (1152) and the period creation of the Quran (1130–1152). 01–27.08.2019.
Localization of Ancient Rome New!!!
The history of Ancient Rome is well studied, but hides a lot of inconsistencies and contradictions relating to the period of formation of the city and the expansion of the Romans into the world. We believe that the problems are caused by ignorance of the true localization of Ancient Rome in the Volga region on Akhtuba until the Fire on 64 and move city to location of Veii in Italy. The article also considers the aspects of ethnic origin of the peoples of the Latin League, Ancient Rome and Europe. The vector of expansion of Ancient Rome from the Volga region to the Europe coinciding with the migration flows of the Migration Period and the spread of PIE is substantiated. In addition the article considers the dynamics of growth and decline of the population of Ancient Rome in the localities from its inception to sunset and transformation. 23.06–16.07.2019.
Short chronology of Ancient Egypt New!!!
The history of Ancient Egypt generated in XIX century, every day finds out all greater discrepancy to modern realities both the newest archeological and tool data, including results of DNA researches of mummies of the Egyptian pharaohs. The chronology of Egypt as whole is considered well investigated and however it has been created for substantiation of an antiquity of Jewish people, instead of for scientific description of one of most ancient terrestrial civilizations. Author's reconstruction of chronology of Ancient Egypt has found out time shift at rate 1780 years in depth of centuries from true dating events. 1-16.06.2019.
Great Tartary or Slavic Empire
The next riddle of world historiography is solved. Present clause is devoted to history and modern condition of one of the most grandiose empires of terrestrial civilization – Great Tartary or Slavic Empires. 04–19.09.2017.
The European Aryans
In present clause the broad audience of the questions connected to probable Aryan origin of various European peoples is considered. Including aspects of possible an Aryan origin of Slavs and prospects of presence by these of special way to world around are considered. 25.02.2017 - 24.03.2017.
Summarizing of Zemsky Sobor 2016 (Land Assembly 2016)
Within the framework of carrying out Zemsky Sobor 2016 (Land Assembly 2016) on elections of Grand Prince of All Russia four Nominees have been put forward. The overwhelming majority of voices have been given for Nominee Grand Prince Valeriy Viktorovich Kubarev. Will of God and decision of participants of Assembly, Zemsky Sobor 2016 has elected lifelong Grand Prince of All Russia Valeriy Viktorovich Kubarev Grand Kubensky Rurikovich. 11.05.2016.
Yaroslavl’s Princes Rurikovich
In clause is described family tree of Grand Princes of Yaroslavl and their descendants, it is the senior branch of the Kin of Russ – Rurikovich, going back to Mstislav Great Monomachos. Kin of the Grand Princes of Yaroslavl have continued by Princes Grand Kubensky – Kubarev. 22.02.2016–11.03.2016.
All truth about Saint Prince Vladimir
In clause the all truth about Saint Prince Vladimir which is ignored Orthodox and Romanov’s historians, communistic historical science and their modern adepts, fabricating myths about Russ with « good intentions » opens without denominations. The kin of Russ - Rurikovich has created Orthodoxy and the Russian statehood, Russian people began to forget about it. Glory to Russ! 07-17.07.2015.
Brief chronology of religions
The report at XXX International conference on problems of the Civilization, 25.04.2015, Moscow, RosNoU. In the clause the final Chronological Tables of Ancient Egypt, Ancient and New Rome, Rome in Italy, Christianity, Islam and Judaism are submitted. 25.04.2015.
Canons of Orthodoxy of XIV century and the present time
The report at XXIX International conference on problems of the Civilization, 20.12.2014, Moscow, RosNoU. In the report the comparative analysis of canons of Orthodoxy of XIV century (1315-1321), displayed on mosaics and frescos of Church of Chorus in Istanbul, and modern doctrines are made. Numerous differences of events of the Holy Legend and the Gospel of the past and the present are found out. 20.12.2014.
Ethnic threats to peoples of Russia
In clause political, economic, cultural and religious aspects of consequences of ethnic opposition of radical peoples of Russia and new coming Slavic population formed as result of violent Slavic expansion in Russia in days of the Mongolian yoke are considered. The historical reasons of occurrence of ethnic contradictions are investigated, estimations of modern condition of problem (Chechelevskaya and Lubotinskaya Republics in 1905, Donetsk national republic and Lugansk national republic in 2014 in territory of Ukraine) are given and offers on decrease in escalation of ethnic opposition in territory of Eurasia are made. 09.06 - 05.07.2014.
Attribution of Rurikovich and Emperors Lecapenus
The report at XXVIII International Conference on problems of the Civilization is 26.04.2014, Moscow, RosNoU. In clause it is described detailed attribution of Ugrian Tsars with Emperors of Ancient and New Rome and Patriarches of terrestrial civilization. It is scientifically proved origins of all patriarches of monotheism and Emperors Flavius and Lecapenus from kint of Ugrian Tsars of Russ (Great), is the ethnic Finn-Ugrian from Volga region. 23.03.2014 – 24.04.2014.
Putin's Eurasian impasse
Vladimir Putin and Uniform Russia realize the Eurasian project, involving Russia and Russian people during stagnation and backlogs from World Civilization. They create Gog and Magog Empire, menacing to world peace. Why the Kremlin authority has not asked Russian Slavs – they want to live in the Asian country or to be safe Europeans? 14-22.01.2014.
Projections of the God in symbols of religion
As result of studying the extensive visual material created by 3D modeling, we have proved existence of uniform source of an origin of Projections of the God, that is religious symbolic of people. The source or quantum object refers to the Chariot of the God. We believe that on the basis of our researches, it will be possible to organize training to travel on the Universe of space navigators from the most gifted people and to create spaceships with engines as the described quantum generator is Chariots of the God or the Chariot of Cube. 25–30.08.2013.
Origin and migration of Slavs
Historical and genetic routes of migrations of the Slavs, calculated with the help from ancient Byzantium, European, Chinese, Arabian, Bulgarian and Russian chronicles and annals, and also modern researches of man's DNA chromosomes. 01-21.05.2013.
Empires of cousins of Russ
The report at scientific XXVI International conference on problems of the Civilization 26-27.04.2013, Moscow, RosNoU. In article five world Empires of cousins of Russ (Great) existing in our era on open spaces of Eurasia with cyclicity of occurrence once in 300 years are described.
Hungarian Kingdom of Russ
It is continuation of research of dynastic communications of Rurikovich. Cousin of Rurik Almysh/Almos and his children Kazan/Kurszan and Arbat/Arpad, it is all ethnic Ugrian of Russ, have based at the end of IX century – beginning of X century the Hungarian kingdom of Russ, having grasped Great Moravia. 08-11.01.2013.
Reconstruction of dynastic communications of Rurikovich in IX-XI centuries
Report at anniversary scientific XXV International conference on problems of civilization at 21-22.12.2012, RosNoU, Moscow. Corrected at 03.01.2013.
Educated Christianity of Russ
Bible – the Old Testament and the New Testament has exhausted itself. Forged the Scripts and the Sacred Legend cannot serve more as a spiritual reference point for promotion of mankind forward on the river of time. It is allowable to use only spiritual – moral potential of the ancient products being product of national creativity of Jews and Catholics, instead of divine revelations. The chronology of Bible events, an ethnic accessory of patriarchs of mankind, names, geography and original languages of heroes of the Bible do not correspond to the validity. Bible miracles have the quantum nature in the basis and submit to laws of a universe. Educated Christianity of Russ restore the religious both destroyed obscurantists religious and scientific knowledge of Christianity and revolutionary role of religion in history of civilization. 26.08. – 12.10.2012.
True Empty Tomb
Nova Church of Sacred Russia and Sacred Russ, Princes of Russia congratulates mankind on presence of True Empty Tomb and restoration of the religious and historical truth. The true has triumphed forever. 20-29.05.2012.
Orthodoxy and Islam in Old Russia
The report at XXIV International scientific conference on problems of the Civilization in Russian New University on April 20-21, 2012.
Day of Church Slavonic writing. Russ Cyril and Methodius.
In this significant holiday of Day of Church Slavonic writing and remembering Equal Apostles Sacred Cyril and Methodius, Princes of Russ convincingly ask Russian Orthodox Church and the public of the orthodox countries to return to sources and correctly to name the writing, language and church books Russian, but not Slavic. Ancient Russia was the Finno-Ugric state created by Russ Christians Rurik and Igor, Cyril and Methodius, Askold and Dir, Prophetic Oleg and Sacred Olga, Sacred Vladimir and Empress Anna Macedonian.
Wars of Russ in IX-XI centuries
In article on a rich actual material it is shown, that all wars of Russ with Byzantium in 836-1043 have been connected to deduction of a throne of empire by Russian party of Constantinople headed by the Macedonian dynasty of Russ. To the author it is proved, that two centuries co-emperors of New Rome were Great Princes Rurikovich. Last Russian emperor Jaroslav Mudry known in Tsar Grad as Constantine Monomakh was. The report at scientific XXII International conference on problems of the Civilization 22-23.04.2011, Moscow, RosNoU.
Genetic distances between cousins Rurikovich
The report at scientific XXII International Conference on problems of the Civilization, on April 22-23, 2011, RosNoU, Moscow, Russia. 24.04.2011.
Slavic-Mongolian invasion to Russia
Results of our research of an origin of Slavs have not simply scientific, but political value. In view of the received data it is necessary to form the weighed policy of interethnic and inter religious attitudes in Russia and the world. The modern hobby of Russian Slavs Rodoverie, the Aries origin and the contemptuous attitude to inhabitants of Central Asia, Caucasus, Mongolia, China and other regions of the world bears a system and logic mistake. Rodoverie in general it is senseless, in fact ancestors Rodoverian in Russia and Ukraine have left Central Asia and were Kirghiz, Altaian’s, Tajik’s, Pashtun’s, Uyghur’s and Juan-Juan, and completely not blond demigods. 12-18.03.2011.
Old Rome and Italic union of the Volga region
The scientific article on an extensive historical material proves that Ancient Rome has been created by Finno-Ugric tribe’s of Italic union of the Volga region (Idel, Bulgar). Italic peoples Vestini (Vesi), Marsi (Merya), Lucani (Lucane), Marrucini (Marri) and others till now live on Volga. Finno-Ugric named Latinas (Latinyanami) German peoples of the Volga region, differently Altyn-ami that means Gold literally. Fortress Alba Longo was called Altynbash, and Volga region Rome – Ulak-Urum. Southwest capital of Finno-Ugric of Idel was city Phanagoria or the Finn–Ugoria, being in antiquities capital Bosporus Empire and Great Bulgaria was. The web of lies of the western falsifiers of history how many would not be twisted, but to it all the same there comes the end. 10-21.02.2011.
We have proved fidelity Bulgarian theory of an origin of mankind. She proves to be true a natural vector of moving of people on a planet from the Volga region in all parties of Eurasia, and there from to Africa, Australia and America. All peoples and races of the world have taken place from Hindi-European, namely – from ethnic Finno-Ugric. 01-07.02.2011.
Correct DNA-Genealogy and glottochronology
Scientific article of Grand Prince Valeriy Kubarev on DNA-Genealogy and glottochronology is submitted to your attention. The author has created formulas with which help it is possible to define precisely time of life of the general ancestor and an epoch of formation of various languages. These formulas have received the name of Kubarev’s formula. With the help of mathematical calculations, Valeriy Kubarev has proved fidelity Barrow of Hypothesis of Maria Gimbutas and own reconstruction of a history of the world. We hope that results of research will find wide application in DNA-Genealogy and glottochronology. 04-14.01.2011.
Genealogy and genetics of Princes of Russia
The report of Grand Prince Valeriy Kubarev at XXI International Conference on problems of the Civilization 25.12.2010. Valeriy Kubarev's scientific article describes genetics of Rurikovich and Sorts of Russia. Grand Prince has scientifically defined modal haplotype of Rurik, Gedimin, Russ Aydar, Kubrat, Flavius and has theoretically described modal haplotype of Alexander Great, Jesus Christ Zlatoust, Prophet Mohammed and Genghis Khan. All these well-known people ethnically Finno-Ugrian from the Sort of Russ. 25.12.2010.
What do we celebrate on November 4? Loss of the national sovereignty...
National voting or voting of national representatives is unacceptable for elections of Tsar and Grand Duke, in fact tsar from the God, and the voice of people is not a voice Divine. Elections of Grand Duke only voting of Princes – patrimonial aristocracy of Russia are possible. 08-21.11.2010.
Turn of the Earth promptly comes nearer
This is article with the analysis of abnormal geophysical and climatic activity on a planet. 09-12.09.2010.
Baltavar – a symbol of Christianity, an Islam and Judaism
Petrarca: « When people will address to the history, his greatness come to live »
History of Russ about 3506 BC till 2012
Kubarev V.V.'s report, History of Russ about 3506 BC till 2012.
Section «Civilization aspects of the Russian history and chronology».
Tenth International scientific conference «Civilization of knowledge: global crisis and an innovative choice of Russia», Moscow, April 24-25, 2009, RosNOU.
Whose fault is it?
Emperors Lekapenos(920–945) New!!!
Based on a thorough analysis of the chronicles of New Rome, Ancient Russia, Great Bulgaria and Arab sources, the author has justified the Finno–Ugric origin of the Macedonian Dynasty and the Lekapenos Dynasty. The details of the biographies, names, dates of rule and family ties of dozens of Emperors, Khagans and Princes of Byzantium, Russ and Bulgar coincide with great accuracy, which makes it possible to identify all the studied personalities with real historical figures. In local chronicles, they have different or identical names, depending on the national characteristics of the nicknames of the studied persons. 07.12.2020–30.01.2021.
Dancing on bones (people losses of USSR in SWW)
We have found out the facts of direct falsification of human losses of military men and civil persons of the USSR within the Second World War in some millions person. Forgery is caused by activity of the propaganda machine of the USSR and false understanding of patriotism in modern Russia. By our calculations true irrevocable losses of the population of the USSR within the SWW make 7.6–8.7 million persons from among military men and the general losses with civil people 12.8–13.9 million persons. Have run away from Stalin paradise of USSR is hundred thousand (up to 1.3 million) the persons. We believe that the name of each victim of war should be taken into account and sounded publicly. 04–18.05.2019.
Territory of negative
The report at XXXVI International conference on problems of the Civilization, 20-21.04.2018, Moscow, RosNoU. As result of centuries-old struggle of the West and the East there was theological incident when the advanced countries call Russia stronghold of evil, and Russia use toga of the defender of the God and Belief, accusing other world in mortal sins. In the report attempt objectively is done to understand that occurs in the historical plan to the population and civilizations on territories of Russia and what forecast it is possible to make on the future. 20-21.04.2018.
Expansion of Rome from Volga region
The report at XXXIII International conference on problems of the Civilization, 24.12.2016, Moscow, RosNoU. In the report the extensive information on resettlement of peoples to Europe through ports of Bosporan Kingdom and Bosporus to the Mediterranean from the Volga region, Siberia and Caucasus during existence of Ancient Rome in delta of the rivers Volga and Akhtuba since VI century B.C. up to middle of VI century is submitted. 24.12.2016.
Seleucus and tribal leaders of Rome
The report at scientific XXXI International Conference on problems of the Civilization has acted on December 26, 2015, RosNoU, Moscow, Russia. In the report the hypothesis that "Macedonian" gains of IV century B.C. actually are the first wave of expansion of Ancient Rome and resettlement of peoples on South, East and West from territory of the Volga region and Caucasus is put forward and proved. 26.12.2015.
Picturesque Gospel of Church of Chora (Kariye) in Istanbul
Research of artifacts of Church of the Christ Savior in Chora (Church of Chorus, XIV century, Istanbul) has allowed restoring overlooked nuances of ancient doctrines of Byzantium Orthodoxy. The numerous facts of distortion Holy Book and Holy Legend have been found out at formation of modern Christian canons which at all are not an inviolable reality from above, and there is product of human creativity. 15.09–08.10.2014.
Images ancient Romans from Volga in artefacts
Long millennia in Idel-Rome-Memphis-Mitsraim-Itil-Saray-Batu lived from 600 000 up to one million person. Ruins of city are grandiose pantry of a history, culture and religion. Masonic scientists diligently avoid carrying out there scale excavation. In those places prospers only black selector of treasures. How long it is possible to hide to world elite of impostors true from people? 20-22.04.2010.
What to do?
Syncing the chronicles of Rome and Egypt New!!!
Based on a thorough analysis of details of military campaigns and astronomical phenomena from the chronicles of Ancient and New Rome, Ancient Egypt and Persian sources, the author confirmed the chronological shift in the history of Ancient Egypt by 1780 years in the past. The author also revealed the complot of historians to conceal the existence of Ancient Egypt in I millennium by masking the deeds of the Egyptian Pharaohs of the New Kingdom for the non-existent activity of the Kings of the Sasanian Empire. 06–29.03.2021.
The identification of the Patriarchs with historical figures New!!!
The author correctly identifies the Patriarchs of monotheistic religions with historical figures of the past based on the paradigm of a short chronology of the world and linking events to unique celestial phenomena reflected in Chronicles and Scriptural. The identification of the Patriarchs is based on the analysis of data from the genealogical trees of Jesus Christ from Lucas, Matthew, mosaics of the Church of Chora, the genealogical tree of the Prophet Muhammad and lists of the Kings of the Great Bulgaria. 21.07–27.08.2020.
We have found out and have proved that at everyone men are two direct lines of Pure Relationship on which in each generation of ancestors he has only one pair pure relatives – the forefather and the foremother. All other ancestors are the listed relatives. We also have proved that each woman has two direct lines of Pure Relationship on which in each generation of ancestors it has only one pair foremothers. On the basis of research we confirm De Facto firmness of the absolute law of succession is rule Lex Salica of Pure Relationship. 05.08 – 03.09.2014.
Thus, genealogic tree of Prophet Mohammed is proved with existence of short chronology of mankind. The history of mankind is based on acts of a dynasty Russian Varyags and Kumirs into which great prophets of mankind entered: Nay (Nuh), Abraham (Ibragim), Ismail, Jacob (Jakub), Tsars Saul-David (Urgan-Kubar/Kubrat), Jesus Christ (Isa) and Prophet Mohammed. 01-02.03.2008.
To be continued...
Thoughts aloud: Religion
Thoughts aloud: Politics
Thoughts aloud: Advice
To be continued...
||Valery KUBAREV > Modernization of Russia > Archive 2006-2018 > History of Ancient Rome (1184 B.C.– 476)
History of Ancient Rome (1184 B.C.– 476)
The Roman history begins with a Flood and the termination of Trojan War in 1184 B.C., when the Trojans–Atlantis–Da’Aries headed Aeneas, by 20 ships have gone from the destroyed Troy on searches of the new native land [503-524.] Troy was advanced post Atlantis and Da’Arias in area of Mediterranean Sea and supervised a Sea way through Dardanelles to Black Sea to Atlantis (which was there where Southern Russia is now located).
On our reconstruction of a history, way Aeneas and his satellites laid across Mediterranean Sea from Thrace to Crete, Sicily and to Egypt. It is known that about Sicily ships Aeneas have got in a storm and have been rejected to Africa, near to the future Cartage. We believe that Aeneas has gone not on the north, to Apennines, and on the east is along coast of Africa. In delta of Nile is Trojans have found out a weak Egyptian civilization. After short struggle against Egyptians, approximately in 1184 B.C., Trojans have grasped Ancient Egypt which has named the Top Egypt. For Egyptians Aeneas became first pharaoh Menes. Having left in Egypt small garrison, Trojans have moved further, - on the native land - in Atlantis.
Their route ran through a passage connected in the past Mediterranean Sea with Indian Ocean (on a place of modern Suez Canal), further - through Red sea, Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf. After that they have got in a passage, (located on territory of modern Iran) which connected Indian Ocean to Caspian Sea. Further ships Aeneas were floating on the north of Caspian Sea, and have moored there, where now a mouth of Volga, that is near to the lost capital Atlantis. According to a legend, Trojans have been exhausted by wanderings, and one of Trojan women has suggested to stop navigation and to burn out the ships. Called her Rome, therefore there is a version on which in honor of it and the future city of Rome has been named. Thus, after long navigation, Aeneas and Trojans-Atlantis again arrived on the ancestral home where the nature began to heal the wounds put to it by a Flood.
Atlantis and Da'Aries. A medieval card
The Caspian pool in an antiquity up to Flood.
Top (Africa) and Bottom (Volga region) Egypt.
Aeneas and his comrades have come into friendly contacts to the local residents who have lodged there already after a flood. From the rests of stone constructions Atlantis, son of Aeneas, Ascanius, has constructed the first fortress on Volga, named Alba Longa, or White walls / White long wall.
Alba Longa (Latin Alba Longa, in the Italian sources there is spelling Albalonga), - ancient Latin city in Latium in the Volga region to a southeast from Rome. Under the legend, a fortress Alba Longa has been based about 1152 B.C. (in 30 years after Lavinius) Askanius, son of Aeneas who has accepted later name Julus, and, becoming ancestor of sort Julus’s. In beginning of I century B.C. the fortress was the center of the Latin union, and in VII century B.C. (at tsar Tullus Hostilius) Romans of her have destroyed, have moved inhabitants of her to Rome, and here a sanctuary of Jove Laciarius taking place in Alba Longa and remained the sacred center of the union. Actually the area around of Alba Longa only at Latin referred to as Latium, ancient Egyptians named its Bottom (northern) Egypt. In fact the Top Egypt in Africa was supervised by Trojans since times of an outcome from Troy in 1184 B.C.
In view of our researches leaves that Aeneas and Menes is the same person. He had also other names: bible name Mizraim, Egyptian name Narmer. On our reconstruction of a dynasty of tsar of tsars Aeneas-Menes was the son of god Poseidon or the bible Ham. It is no wonder that, under the legend, Poseidon has rescued wounded man Aeneas from fury Ahill during Trojan fight.
On the Egyptian sources, Menes was born in the city of Tinis (on Egyptian like), and not found out in Egypt, and actually, is in the known city of Tanais that stood once on a place of present Azov, in a mouth of the river Don. It agrees Herodotus, Menes has built the big embankment, has rejected current of the huge river, that is Volga, and has directed water in old channel the rivers. On the area extracted thus the pharaoh has constructed a fortress the Inebu-hedge (literally White walls, the latest Memphis), becoming an imperial residence. To the south from a fortress the sanctuary of local god Ptaha (Ptaha-to-south-from-wall-his) which remained the god - patron of this city during all his history has been built. God Ptaha is identical to the Latin god to the Jove, Greek Zeus and bible Japheth. In day of his opening Menes for the first time has made symbolical ceremonies of connection of the papyrus (a symbol of the north) and a lotus (a symbol of the south). It has topped him self with white and red crowns, has founded a title «tsar of the Top and Bottom Egypt» and in a solemn procession has bypassed White wall. Up to the end of the Egyptian civilization pharaohs, including carrying corresponding title Ptolemy, repeated this ritual at each crowning. We shall note, that the Bottom Egypt settled down in a lower reaches of current of Volga, and the Top Egypt was in Northern Africa, along a watercourse Nile. What that time after a flood the Top and the Bottom Egypt incorporated a Sea artery through Caspian Sea and Persian Gulf. Then instead of a dried up natural passage the overland road has been built. The second Sea way between two states went through Pontus is Black Sea, Bosporus, Marble and Mediterranean exhausting.
Is on a place of a fortress the Inebu-hedge in area 753 B.C. The huge city of Rome–Memphis has been constructed. Within the framework of our researches there is a small chronological break between years of board of the first pharaoh of Egypt Menes (1217 - 1185 B.C.) and years of board of Trojan Aeneas (1179-1176 B.C.). Probably, dating of years of board Aeneas is done proceeding from actual stay Aeneas in the field of a fortress Alba Longa. To tell the truth, there are no doubts in date of the basis of Memphis and Rome, - she coincides: 753 year B.C. For the first time the name Memphis has appeared in annals only in XXIII century B.C., that is in view of chronological shift on 1790, received by us in VI century B.C. Egyptians considered, that this name occurs from name Menefer Pepi, a funeral complex of pharaoh Pepi I of VI dynasty. In Egypt Memphis was known and under name Anh Taui (« the Life of two grounds ») or Yti Taui («Uniting two ground »), that like would emphasize his strategic position on border between the Top and the Bottom Egypt. Actually simply the city laid between two grounds divided by Volga, named in past Ra. However is in VIII century B.C. The future Memphis began to refer to as local residents Latins, Rome.
Thus, our reconstruction of a history to pushing we on a surprising conclusion is Aeneas-Menes-Mizraim was based by Ancient Egypt and Ancient Rome. Egypt has consisted of two parts is the Top Egypt in Africa, occupied by Trojans in 1184 B.C., and the Bottom Egypt is in delta of the river Volga-Akhtuba where the fortress White walls has been constructed, becoming subsequently Rome–Memphis.
Arrangement of Memphis-Rome on Volga-Akhtuba.
Ostia is on Caspian Sea.
Let's return to the Roman history, a component of the Egyptian history. In fact son Aeneas Ascanius became legendary Julus, a primogenitor of a dynasty of Roman Emperors Julus.
Fortress Alba Longa is on Volga is legendary native land of Romulus and Remus.
It is known, that tsars of Alba Longa, according to tradition, corrected there in XII-VIII centuries B.C. Their historical reality seems to someone doubtful. In fact the found out different interpretations in sources are insignificant and concern basically of a spelling of names. Actually tsars Latin were simultaneously and the Egyptian pharaohs of the first dynasties. A ruling dynasty of descendants Ascanius-Julus has received name Silvius.
The brief list of Latin and Roman tsars is at Titus Libyan, Ovidius, Appianius, Dion Kassianius and Aurelius Victor (they do not specify dates of board), more detailed is at Dionisius Halikarnass, Diodorius Sicilian (specify dates) and in «Chronicle of Evsevius» (where dates, but not genealogical communications) [525-531] are specified.
In the list names are resulted on Libya, and dates of board is under «Chronicle of Evsevius», years are resulted B.C.:
1. Aeneas. Rules of Latin three years (1179-1176 B.C.), has based a dynasty.
2. Ascanius. 38 years (1176-1138 B.C.), the founder of a fortress Alba Longa.
3. Silvius, brother of Askanius. 29 years. (1138-1109), on Diodorius is 49 years.
4. Aeneas Silvius. 31 year (1109-1078), on Diodorius is rules « more than 30 years ».
5. Latinas Silvius, the son. 50 years (1078-1028); on Dionisius is 51 year.
6. Alba Silvius, the son. 39 years (1028-989), Appian and Dion of it do not count tsar, on
Diodorius is 38 years.
7. Atys Silvius, the son. 24 years (989-965), on Dionisius is Capetus, rules of 26 years, on
Diodorius is Epytus, rules of 26 years; on Ovidius is Epytus, on Evsevius is Egypt, Appian
and Dion of it do not count tsar.
8. Atys Silvius, the son. 28 years (965-937), on Diodorius is Apys.
9. Capys Silvius, the son. 13 years (937-924), on Dionisius and Diodorius is Capetus, on Libya
and Ovidius is Capetus, on Evsevius is Carpentus, Dion of it does not consider.
10. Tiberinus Silvius, the son. 8 years (924-916).
11. Agrippa Silvius, the son. 40 years (916-876), on Dionisius and Diodorius is 41 year, on
Ovidius is his name Acrot, and it was brother Romulus, Dion of it does not count tsar.
12. Romulus Silvius, the son. 19 years (876-857), on Dionisius is Allodius, on Ovidius is
Romulus, on Diodorius is Arramulius, on Evsevius and to Aurelius Victor is Romulus, his
Dion does not count tsar.
13. Aventinus Silvius, the son. 37 years (857-820).
14. Procas Silvius, the son. 23 years (820-797), Diodorius and Dion of it do not count tsar.
15. Amulius Silvius, the younger son. 44 years (797-753), on Dionisius is 42 years.
Numitor is senior brother Amulius.
16.753 B.C. is the beginning of board Romulus in Rome.
Further from tsars of Alba Longa in sources it is mentioned only Gay Cluilius, soon after his death the city was and is seized by Romans is there was it at tsar Tulle Hostilius (the middle of VII century B.C.). To receive the full information on Latin and Roman tsars, it is necessary to combine a dynastic number with names and years of board of pharaohs of early Egypt. We shall start with the Roman tsars.
The list of ancient Rome tsars:
16. Romul, 753 - 716 B.C.
17. Numa Pompilius, 715 - 674 B.C.
18. Tulle Hostilius, 673 - 642 B.C.
19. Ancus Maecius, 642 - 617 B.C.
20. Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, 616 - 579 B.C.
21. Servius Tullius, 578 - 535 B.C.
22. Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, 535 - 509 B.C.
To this epoch there correspond 35 Egyptian pharaohs, instead of 22 tsars of Latin and Roman chronicles, years of board of pharaohs are given B.C.:
(0) A Flood 1250 B.C.
1.(1) Meni, Menes, Aeneas Hor-Aha, Mizraim is grandson of Noah-Nij, the son of
2.(2) Teti I, Athotis I are possible Jer
3.(3) Iteti Jer, Athotis II (1185-1137)
4.(4) Itia Wadji, Jet, Athotis III about 1130
5.(5) Sepati, Hor Den about 1130
6.(6) Merbiar, Anedjib, Ajib (1135-1110)
7.(7) Semsu, Semerchet (1110-1100)
8.(8) Qebeh(u), Hor Qaa (about 1100)
9.(9) Bedjau, Bedjajmeru, Hetepsechemui (about 1100)
10.(10) Kakau Nebre, Raneb Kechoos (about 1075)
11.(11) Banetjer, Ninetjer, Binothris (about 1010)
12.(12) Wadj-enes Wenegsechemuj, Wadilas, Ougotlas (977-970)
13.(13) Senedi Sened, Sethenes (about 910)
14.(14) Djadjai Chasechemui, Sesochris (896-858)
15.(15) Nebka Hor Sa-nachet, Necherophes (858-840)
16.(16) Djoser-Sa Djoser, Tosorthos, Hor Netjeri-chet (845-821)
17.(17) Teti Djoser-Teti, Djoser Ti, Sechemchet, Tyreis (821-813)
18.(18) Sedjes Chaba, Chaiba, Hudjefa II., Sephuris (813-809)
19.(19) Neferkare Nebkare, Mesochris (809-785)
20.(20) Sneferu Snofru, Soris (823-799)
21.(21) Chefu, Chufu Cheops (799-776)
22.(22) Djedefre Radjedef, Redjedef, Ratoises (776-768)
23.(23) Chaifre, Chafre Chephren, Chaufre, User-ib-Chafra (768-742)
24.(24) Menkaure Mykerinos (742-725)
25.(25) Schepseskaf Schepses-Chet, Serbercheres (713-708)
26.(26) Userkaf Weserkef, User-Ka-Re (704-697)
27.(27) Sahure Sahura, Nebchau (697-685)
28.(28) Kakai Neferirkare, Nephercheres (685-665)
29.(29) Neferefre Ra-nefer-ef, Cheres (645-642)
30.(30) Niuserre Ini, Ni-woser-re (642-631)
31.(31) Menkauhor Hori Kau, Mencheres (631-624)
32.(32) Djedkare Asosi, Isesi, Tancheres (624-585)
33.(33) Unis Unas, Wenis, Onnos, Hor-Wadj-taui (585-555)
34.(34) Teti Teti II., Sehetep-taui (555-543)
35.(35) Userkare (543-490)
36.(36) Merire Pepi I, Meri-taui (490-468)
It is unequivocally possible to identify Menes and Aeneas, his son Jul and Julus in the beginning of the list and to identify last pharaoh in the Roman history of tsar Lucius Tarquinius Superbus as pharaoh Userkara. Further pharaoh Marira/Pepi I became the full Egyptian, rule only in the Top Egypt located in Africa. For an identification of other Egyptian pharaohs with Latin and Roman tsars it is necessary to carry out the careful research beyond the present work. Probably, pharaoh Hefren can be identified with tsar Romulus. On this pharaoh dynastic line Menes-Aeneas has stopped.
Let's put forward a hypothesis that to an epoch of construction of Rome - Memphis in 753 B.C. There correspond climatic and geological changes in water area of Caspian Sea when the level of world Ocean was lowered so, that the passages connecting Caspian Sea with Baltic sea, Sea of Azov, Persian Gulf and Scythian Ocean, have dried up. Already has passed 500 years after Flood is in 1250 B.C. The bottom is of the former seas and passages have turned to the marshlands, the covered hydrochloric adjournment. In Russia and Central Asia these territories have turned to deserts, the Scythian Ocean became West Siberian plain. The passage with Baltic became bogs in Belarus and Baltic. The passage in Iran has turned to hydrochloric deserts. Natural communication of the Top and Bottom Egypt on Sea through Caspian Sea has been lost, that promoted break of political, economic and military communications between two regions of the huge Egyptian state.
Thus, the Latin-Egyptian tsars of Alba Longa have been superseded by Romans from the Volga region to the African Top Egypt by 509 B.C., when began the period of republican board in Rome - Memphis. All pharaohs of Egypt and the Roman tsars are Trojans is Atlantis-Da’Aries by origin, conducting the sort from the god of the Poseidon-Ham and his father of titan Kronos-Noah-Nij.
Is Capitol female wolf.
The steppe, near-Caspian wolf,
prototype of Capitol femal wolf.
Steppe, near-Caspian wolves.
Let's stop on historical details of the basis of Rome on Volga-Akhtuba.
When Trojans - Atlantis arrived to Volga, one of local tsars, Latinas, has affably met immigrants and later even has given out for Aeneas the daughter is Lavinia. In honor of it Aeneas has based the city of Lavinia. After death Latina Aeneas became tsar of immigrants, and aboriginals. Son Aeneas, Ascanius-Julus has been compelled to constrain aggression of local Volga tribes is Etruscans. Therefore it has transferred capital of the state to new city - Alba Longa which soon began to dominate over all cities of Lazio and has rallied them in the Latin union. We shall note, that the Latin union settled down in delta of the river of Volga, in the north of Caspian Sea, instead of in Italy as modern historians consider.
The fifteenth under the account tsar of Alba Longa, Numitor, was will overthrow brother Amuliem whom to secure itself, has killed son Numitor (the son was gone during hunting) and, under a kind of rendering of honor, has given his daughter Hover Silvius in priestess of goddess Vesta. Dodge consist that priestesses should store 30 years a vow of chastity and could not have children. For the fourth year of service Rhea to it in a sacred grove the god Mars then at it twins - Romulus and Remus were born was. Angry Amulius has taken she into custody and babies has ordered to put in a basket and to throw in the river Tiber in Russian is to Akhtuba. Twins have not sunk, on a legend, they have been reared female wolf, and parent cares were undertaken by the arrived woodpecker and a lapwing. Children have been brought up by shepherd Fastulius. The wife of it, Acca Larencia, yet not consoled after death of the child, has accepted twins on the care. When brothers have grown, they have returned to Alba Longa where have learned secret of the origin, then have killed tsar Amulius, and a throne of Alba Longa have given grandfather Numitor.
After four years, at will of the grandfather, Romulus and Remus have gone to Tiber is to search for a place for the basis of a new colony of Alba Longa. On a legend, Remus has chosen lowland between Palatine and Capitol hills, but Romulus insisted on basing city on Palatine a hill. The hope for signs was not justified, quarrel during which Romulus has killed the brother has flashed. Having repented, it has based the city of Rome, having given it the name (in Latin Roma), also became his tsar. Date of the basis of city considers on April 21, 753 B.C., when around Palatine a hill the plough had been lead the first line.
Let's note that the dynastic line Silvius going from Poseidon and Aeneas, it has been interrupted Romulus and Remus. In fact they were children of the god of Mars–Ares. The man's line of the Roman tsars began to go from the Jupiter-Zeus-Japheth.
Ares, Arey (ancient Greek Ἄρης, Miken A-re) in ancient Greek mythology the god of artful, perfidious war, war for the sake of war, son Hera and Zeus [503-525]. In Mycenes an epoch his name meets in structure of composites: a-re-me-ne (Areymen), a-re-i-ze-we-i (Aritsevehi), pa-na-re-jo (Panarey). Originally was considered, that Hera has given birth Ares by htonic (virgin), without participation Zeus, from a touch to a magic flower that is it is pure. There are certificates about his not Greek, Thracian, an origin. Sophocles names his given birth in Thrace. In Olympic mythology Ares it is already considered son Zeus and Hera. Itself Zeus so hated Ares, that spoke that not be that his son, it would send it in Tartar. Once within 13 months (more than year) it has been sharpened in a copper amphora, or in a clay tub. It has captivated Aload. Ares goddesses of the Aphrodite were beloved. Their love and infringement by the Aphrodite of matrimonial fidelity very much frequently is mentioned with antique mythology. In fight for Pilos Ares was wounded Heracles when that has killed Kikna. Ares participated in Trojan War on the party of Trojans and has been defeated Athena.
During first time the main care Romulus was care of increase in the population of city. With this purpose it has given to newcomers of the same right, freedom and citizenship what were at the first settlers. For them it has allocated the grounds of Capitol Hill. Due to this in city fluent slaves exiles of a classical antiquity have started to be flown down and is simple adventurers from other cities and the countries. In Rome there were no women - next peoples fairly considered shameful to enter for themselves the related unions with crowd of tramps as they named at that time Romans. Therefore Romulus has thought up dodge is it suited a solemn holiday is Consualius, with games, struggle and a different sort gymnastic and cavalry exercises. For a holiday many neighbors Romans, including Sabine have gathered. And here, when spectators and, in particular, spectators, have been keen on a course of game, on a conventional sign the numerous crowd Romans with swords and spears was threw over unarmed visitors. In turmoil and a crush Romans sufficed women is who how many could. Itself Romulus has taken to itself in the wife Sabine Hersilia. Ritual of abduction of the bride on wedding since then became the Roman custom.
In city crafts and trade have started to develop. The state structures, such, as the senate and institute of lector have been formed. Influence of Rome so has increased, that the former colony has managed to grasp and destroy the mother country is Alba Longa (at Tulle Hostilius), however all next years Rome has been compelled messages long wars with neighbors is Sabine, Latinas and Etruscan. It is interesting, that to the north of Rome there was a set of cities Etruscan. We shall not overlook that Etruscan then lived in two regions of the world: in the Volga region and in Italy. Aboriginals of the average Volga region is Etruscan were Russ, ancestors of Russian people. The part Etruscan, after Flood, has located in Italy, but supported communications with the relatives in the Volga region.
Romulus as it is considered has created the senate, consisted at that time from 100 "fathers". It has established distinctions of the Supreme authority, has founded posts lectors, has divided people into 30 curias, on names Sabine women, and has founded three tribes is Raman, Ticia and Lucero. To it division Romans on patricians and plebeians is attributed. Military glory Romulus has involved in city new inhabitants is Volga region of Etruscan. They have occupied Exvilian a hill. By then Sabine, recovered from loss of the women, under leadership of tsar Tacius, have gone to take Rome and, despite of heroism of defenders of city, have almost managed it to take. But in the heat of fight on a battlefield have appeared Sabine: holding babies on hands, they conjured, on the one hand, the fathers and brothers, with another - husbands to stop bloodshed. Sabine and Romans have concluded the world. They have decided to refer to covariates (spear man) and to live together under authority Tacius and Romulus. Sabine have occupied Capitol and next to it Cvirinal a hill.
Within six years Tacius and Romulus corrected together. For this time they have made some successful campaigns, including - in Alban colony Cameria, but in city of Lavinius Tacius have been killed by local residents. Romulus became tsar of incorporated peoples.
At all tsars after Romulus were Etruscan names that indirectly testifies is that Rome has got under strong Etruscan influence. The authority of tsars has been limited. The title of tsar firstly was not handed down: to that time while was empty curly an armchair, the senate appointed temporary tsar (interrex) which corrected no more than one year and for this time should find a worthy nominee of tsar and to expose her on voting in curia the commission. Subsequently the authority was transferred or on a sisterly line, or to reception children is too Etruscan custom. Last tsars came to power as a result of plots and murder of the predecessors. Last tsar of Rome was Lucius Tarquinius Superbus which has become famous for the tyrannical board and has been expelled by Romans. After his overthrow Lucius Tarquinius Superbus is in Rome in 510-509 B.C. The Republic has been proclaimed.
Republic is the historical epoch of Rome distinguished aristocratic is the oligarchic form of board in which the higher authority was focused mainly at the senate and consuls. Sometimes conditionally the republic is subdivided on Early and Late. Latin expression res publica means a common cause. The epoch of Republic proceeded about 510 B.C. Is before creation of Empire in 30-27 B.C.
The senate was the maximum state body of Rome. Though it did not possess any legalized functions, recommendations of the senate (senatusconsulta) were so obligatory for execution, as well as laws of Republic. His authority kept, mainly, on authority of senators and besides it has been supported by respect for customs of ancestors and a religious piety. The senate has consisted of 300 senators, usually former high-ranking officials of the state (city councils). For updating of the senate censors who from among former city councils included in his structure of the most worthy answered. The authority of the senate was distributed to all spheres of the state life. At his exclusive order there was a treasury. In the senate all projects of laws and nominees of the future city councils were preliminary discussed. Besides in his competence there was a foreign policy activity of Republic.
After political transformation of Rome there was a necessity to renew interaction with tribes surrounding Rome and to revive the Latin union [532-534]. This association was in an antiquity federation of the cities of Lazio, it has arisen in beginning I millennium B.C. Also is totaled according to antique tradition, 30 communities. Originally in the chapter of the Latin union there was Alba Longa, since VI century B.C. The union has headed Rome (after destruction by him, according to a legend, in VII century B.C. Fortresses of Alba Longa). Members of the Latin union had the general religious holidays the allied assembly solved the general questions and disputes between members of the union. Complication of political conditions in Rome during an establishment of Republic has allowed some Latin communities to be released from the Roman domination temporarily. The union led by Rome has been restored in 493 year B.C. - on conditions of mutual aid in wars, participations in command by armies and section of extraction.
Bosporus Empire, a member of the Latin union.
Pont Empire, a part of Roman Empire.
The first expansion of Rome on the West became creation Bosporus of an empire at coasts of the Azov and Black Seas. Bosporus the empire, Bosporus is an antique slaveholding state in Northern Black Sea Coast on Bosporus Cimmeria (Kerch strait), mother country of Rome. Capital of the country became Panticapaeum. The empire was formed about 480 B.C. Under the Roman protectorate is the Greek cities on Kerch and peninsulas Taman were united. Then the state has been expanded under the Roman protectorate along east coast Meotid (Meteotid bogs, lakes Meotid, modern Sea of Azov) to mouth Tanais (Don). From the end of II century B.C. it was in structure Pont of an Empire. The Black Sea state became a stronghold of Rome in his promotion in region of Mediterranean Sea and on territory of Europe. Basically through Bosporus an empire foreign trade of Rome was carried out. For maintenance of the economic influence the empire minted Roman both own gold and silver coins which were in use worldwide.
The internal political device of an empire was complex. In 479 B.C. to authority in Bosporus as between polis (Apollo’s, i.e. Latin) the union, there has come the elective governor (Arhont) Arheanact, becoming the founder of a dynasty. However, historians consider, that Arheanact could be and the tyrant, but only in the capital is Panticapaeum. In the chapter of the union there were tyrants Panticapeum from Greek (Milet) sorts of Arheanact’s. The post of the tyrant of Panticapaeum and arhont of Apollo the union became hereditary. Usually consider, that board Arheanakt’s was tyrannical, actually Arheanakt’s is most likely, Arhont’s in democratic between polis Bosporus the union, which spokesman already from the third quarter of VI century B.C. Began Apollo’s the monetary union. Arhont’s belonged to notable sort of Arheanakt’s is which 42 years operated Bosporus polis the union. In Crimea structure Bosporus of an Empire included the cities of Mirmeky, Porhmy, Tiritaka, Nimfea, Hermesy (European part Bosporus) and Hermonassa, Fanahoria, Kepi, Patrey, Korokondama (on Asian Bosporus).
In 438 B.C. tyrannical authority in Panticapaeum and arhont’s in Apollo’s polis the union went to Spartok which descendants named Spartok’s. The last have transformed the tyrannical authority in imperial about 385 B.C., having subordinated itself Feodosiya, Hermonassy and Fanahoria (and even earlier is in 403 B.C. - Nimfea) also headed Bosporus up to 107 B.C. Coming to power Spartok’s was marked by significant expansion of territory of the state which was begun with successor Spartok and Selevk Satires I, have continued Levcon I and Perisad I (348-311 B.C.) is Governors of IV century B.C., to which names the period of the best blossoming Bosporus is connected. Expansion of possession Spartok’s have begun with connection Nimfea and Feodosiya, before consisted in Apollo’s union Bosporus, but left of him from the moment of coming to power Spartok. Struggle for Feodosia was long, she has been complicated with a number of circumstances: at attack cities in 389 B.C. Has died Satires I, struggle has continued Levcon I, but the main thing - in it has accepted active participation on the party of Feodosia Heraclea is city at southern coast of Black Sea. Probably, in the middle of 80th of IV century B.C. Feodosia has been compelled to obey, then Spartok’s began to name itself « Arhont’s Bosporus and Feodosia ». The victory over Feodosia promised good prospects by way of connection in due course to territory of all Kerch peninsulas together with his Scythian population. After that Spartok’s have turned the looks on east coast of Kerch strait. Levcon right after victorious Feodosia campaigns, having crushed prompt a throw from under Feodosia Octamasad, the son Sind’s tsar Hekatei, became the owner in second half 80th of IV century B.C. the new grounds with Sind’s the population. Fanahoria has quickly obeyed Spartok’s after route of the protector is Sind’s Empires. Result of all these gains - purchase Spartok’s of new ports, the extensive fertile grounds, rights of grain export and trading monopoly.
Other major ally of Rome in the Mediterranean became Italy mastered by tribe’s Etruscan still in XII century B.C., right after a Flood. Etruscan the Volga region all always acted as the trustworthy alien of Rome in all political conflicts and wars. However Etruscan in Italy concerned to Romans cautiously and suspicion. When Romans in IV century B.C. began to colonize Italy have received repulse on the part of local communities. Rome became too powerful member of Latin federation and started to consider the Latin union only as the instrument in the policies, Latin achieved more influential role. In a kind shortly before that the made transaction between patricians and plebeians on which the last had been gave one consular place, Latin was demanded also to itself with the same consular place and the right of access in the Roman senate. Romans have rejected this claim. Besides, having broken several strong impacts Latin federation, separate Latin cities in 340 B.C. have completely subordinated to themselves. At this time in Italy, before Latin war, at Romans there was a collision with Samnitian, brave hills men southern Italy which, in turn, wanted to subordinate to itself rich coast of this area with its rich Greek cities. For possession Naples the Second has inflamed Samnitian war (326-304 B.C.), the most serious check the forces by Rome on a way to world sovereignty. Seeing overweight Romans, Italian Etruscan, and also hills men average Italy have come on proceeds Samnitians. Rome has been compelled to be at war on two fronts, but the superiority of his state organization, powerless a military home guard and valor of military leaders have provided to it a victory. Once again Samnitians have undertaken the weapon in 298-290 B.C., choking in an iron ring of the Roman fortresses and military roads. To them to the aid have again hastened Italian Etruscan, Umbri, Gaul’s of east Italy, but the victory again appeared on the party of Rome. Independent there were only Greek cities of southern Italy called to the aid Epirus tsar of Pierre. Conquest of the Greek grounds in Italy became the third stage of struggle for possession of this country. In 272 B.C. the garrison of Pierre in Tarente has surrendered, and the next year the cities of Regium the gain with Romans of Italy (in then sense has ended with a capture, that is except for a valley of the river On and near Alpes the areas concerned to Gallia).
After colonization of Italy, Romans have turned the look to Carthage which was then the lord of water area and cities - colonies of the western Mediterranean. The First Punic war, in (264-241 B.C. began.). The purpose of expansion Romans Sicily separated from continent by a rather narrow passage, with its rich cities and fertile fields, for possession with which struggled Ancient Greece and Carthage’s. Romans as the lords of Italy could not remain neutral. They have landed on Sicily and have entered an epoch of Punic wars. Struggle between the Sicilian colonies of Greeks and Carthage was struggle of two civilizations, European and Asian. Earlier Romans as numerous trading contracts testify were in friendship with Carthage’s. Now interests of these peoples have collided. The help rendered by Rome of the Roman party in Messan, has caused the First Punic war lasting of 24 years. Powerful Syracuse came over to of the party Romans; the Roman country home guard disciplined in legions, repeatedly won groups of the skilful Greek mercenaries struggled under a command Carthage’s of leaders. But Carthage as Sea power could be defeated only on the Sea is and Romans have soon learned to be at war on the sea, having transformed, with the help invented Duiley harborage bridges, Sea fight in overland battle. Not being content with victories over Sicily, Romans already in the first war have equipped expedition to Africa, threatening the Carthage. Attempt has not gone right, but as a result of war Romans have seized Sicily is the second Roman province, after Italy. Then they have borrowed coast of Sardinia and Corsica. And in 238 B.C. having taken advantage of distemper in Carthage, Romans have selected Sardinia at Carthage and annexed Corsica. In 237 B.C. Carthage’s have sent to Iberia (Spain) Hamilcara Barcoo which, having collected strong army and having taken advantage of wars of Rome with Gaul’s and Illyrian’s, has won east coast Iberia (Perinea) of peninsula. After destruction Hamilcara in 228 B.C. his business have continued his son-in-law is Hasdrubal (has been killed in 220 B.C.) and then and the son is Hannibal. Aspiring to limit expansion Carthage’s, Romans have achieved from them in 226 B.C. Promises to not distribute the possession to the north from the river Iber (modern Ebro).
Card of Campaigns Hannibal. In Italy it has not found Rome.
The second Punic war, nobody attacked Rome,
it was not in Italy.
In war there has come brief calm. In 235 B.C. Temple Janus at a forum a rare attribute of the full world has been closed. Romans have engaged in suppression of Sea robbery Illyrians on Adriatic Sea and colonization of boundary area with Gaul’s. It, naturally, has disturbed Gaul’s and has caused war, during which Romans, in 222 B.C., have taken Milan, have become stronger on the river On and have begun transformation of Gallia Cizalpen into northern Italy.
The first Punic war has not weakened power of Carthage so new collision was inevitable. The Second Punic war (in 218-202 B.C. began) by this moment Romans were fixed on islands and in Italy, and Cartage’s is in Spain on which coast for a long time already there were Phoenician colonies, brothers Carthage’s by birth. The well-known family of commanders and politicians Barcid’s - Hamilcar, his son-in-law Hasdrubal and sons Hannibal, Hasdrubal and Magon - have finished a gain of the grounds in the south from Ebro, have rallied Iberia tribes, having created in the strong military state, with an efficient army and the full treasury, representing itself for Carthage more reliable stronghold, than armies of the mercenaries always inclined to mutiny. In 221 B.C. the authority above Spain has passed to young Hannibal which with the African passion saved in itself enmity against Rome.
In 219 B.C. Hannibal has grasped allied to Rome Iberia the city of Sagunt. In the answer the Roman senate has declared to Carthage war. In 218 B.C., it is unexpected for Romans, Hannibal has made very difficult transition from Northern Iberia, through the Alpes, to Italy where has broken two Roman armies is on the river Titsin (the modern river Ticino) and on the river Trebija. It have supported in it Liguria and Gallic tribes. So Hannibal has established the control over Northern Italy. Then in 217 B.C. it has intruded the Central Italy, in the spring 217 B.C. Hannibal has put severe defeat to Consul Gay Flaminius at Trasimen Lake.
Falsifiers of a history assert, that Hannibal like has moved not to Rome, and to Apulia where expected to win round Italic communities. However Italic in the majority have remained are true to Rome. Besides, position Hannibal has ostensibly become complicated, when Romans have selected the dictator Fabius Maxim who has applied new tactics - avoiding decisive battle, exhausted the opponent in fine skirmishes. It is interesting, that Faby Maxim Cunktator was the representative of a sort of tsar of tsars, descendant Ever and Hercules, survived after destruction of all Fabius in 477 B.C. in fight with Etruscan’s. Thus, the history of Punic wars and campaigns Hannibal prove that there was no Rome in Italy this city was in the far Volga region.
However in 216 B.C. Romans have refused tactics Fabius. In June of the same year Consul Terentsius Varron in fight with Carthage at Cannes has suffered terrible defeat; then many cities in Bruttia, Luciana, Picenia and Samna, and also the second-largest city in Italy - Capua came over to of party Hannibal. The Union with Carthage has entered the Macedonian Empire of Syracuse. In so heavy conditions Rome has mobilized all forces and has concentrated them in a province Italy. Romans managed to prevent loss of significant part Italic allies and to collect new army. Aspiring to distract Carthage’s from Italy, Romans have opened new fronts in Spain and on Sicily. But, up to the end of 210th B.C. they and could not achieve significant successes. In Italy Hannibal in 213 B.C. has broken attempt Romans again to seize Capua, and in 212 B.C. is has gained some victories in Luciana and Apulia and has grasped the largest south Italic port Tarentum. At the same time, in Spain the Roman army though has gained in 214-213 B.C. a number of victories, over 212 B.C. already it has been completely destroyed Hasdrubal, brother of Hannibal, in fight on the river Ebro. More successfully Romans acted Sicily, where Consul Claudius Marcellus in 212 B.C. has taken Syracuse. Crisis of war for the benefit of Romans has taken place in 211 B.C., when they have seized Capua.
To convince all of the "correctness", traditional historians speak, that like Romans at all has not frightened demonstrative campaign Hannibal to Rome «Hannibal at a gate!». It is amusing to hear it, in fact it there and did not gather, because no Rome in Italy existed. In 210 B.C. to Spain the Grown-up, which in 209 B.C. has been sent Cornelius Scipion. Has taken New Carthage is the center Carthage’s possession on Iberian Peninsula. In the same year in Italy Fabius Maxim has returned under authority of Rome Tarentum. In 207 B.C. Romans have crushed at Sena Gallic an army which Hasdrubal has resulted from Spain to the aid Hannibal. In 206 B.C. Carthage’s have been compelled to leave Spain finally. In the spring 204 B.C. Scipion has landed in Northern Africa, and in 203 B.C. has broken Carthage’s on Great Plains that has forced Carthage’s authorities to withdraw Hannibal from Italy. In 202 B.C. at support Numidia Tsar Masinissy Scipion has gained deciding victory above Hannibal at Zama. In 201 B.C. Carthage had to accept heavy conditions of the world: It has conceded to Romans Spain and all island possession in Mediterranean Sea, has transferred them almost all fleet, and has undertaken to pay within fifty years the huge contribution and to not conduct wars without the consent of the Roman senate. As a result of the Second Punic war Rome became hegemony of the Western Mediterranean, and Carthage has lost the value as great power.
And in 50 years after a victory over Carthage Rome has not calmed down. The Third Punic war (in 149-146 B.C. has been started.). In 146 B.C. Carthage has been destroyed. As hatred to Carthage was great in Rome at those who witnesses a devastation of Italy and has felt fear before Hannibal, the notorious phrase which eternally repeated Caton testifies: «And however, I believe, that Carthage should be destroyed». Carthage honesty satisfied a half-century all treaty provisions, made with Rome, but, deduced, eventually, from patience incessant captures Carthage’s the grounds with tsar Massiniss and not finding understanding and at Rome, has exposed an army against Numidia’s. Romans have seen in it infringement of the contract prohibiting Carthage’s to wage war without the permission of Rome, and have demanded full disarmament of Carthage. And when it has been executed, have destroyed city and have moved inhabitants on other place, far from the sea. It was followed with three-year heroic protection of city, but has helped nothing - it has been completely destroyed. So the Roman province Africa was formed.
In II century B.C. Rome has conceived some wars on the Balkans, has grasped Macedonia and all Greece. War began in 197 B.C., has ended with route of Macedonian revolt in 173 B.C. Soon at Romans even without any wars, one more province Asia has appeared. He is their ally Tsar Pergamum Attala III, bequeathed to them the empire. Thus, republican Rome to I century B.C. Became the owner of regions of the Mediterranean. Rome, has received the control over the territory consisting of 10 provinces: 2 - on Italic islands, 2 - in Spain, 2 - in the country of Gaul’s, 2-on Balkan peninsulas, 1-in Africa and 2 - in Asia. Pergamum has joined borrowed in 103 B.C. And the Cilicia transformed later in a province. Last two provinces were some kind of advanced posts: in fact transport waterways Romans, going through Black and Mediterranean exhausting, at that time were extremely dangerous is pirates there managed.
At this time in Rome political influence Grach’s which conducted the sort from last tsars of Rome and the first pharaohs of Egypt grew. The interval of time in 90 years is from K. Grach's death up to a victory of August is in the best way is characterized with words Svetonius about an omen in Rome which foretold, that «the nature prepares Roman people of tsar»: regem populo romano naturam parturire. Conditions for occurrence of imperial authority on a background of internal wars of 91-83 B.C. were created. And dictatorship Sulla is in 83-80 B.C.
Any sort of distemper has helped to rise to military leader Pompey. A hard victory above Marian Sertorius in Spain and easier is above Spartacus, the leader of rising slaves, distances Pompeii in 70 B.C. Joint with Crass consulate though it then still was registered in estate of horsemen, not being the senator. We count that revolt Spartacus was in Pont Empire, instead of in Italy. At this time in Rome Sulla has been compelled to seize power. On the contrary Pompey wished dictatorship, but without violence, over one honor. Circumstances Pompey favored. The victory of the last over pirates has induced tribune Gabinius to lead through the senate in 67 B.C. the law on assignment Pompey to exterminate them. Thus to it has been given majus imperium on all east coast of Mediterranean Sea and on 70 miles from coast inside area, that is on all this space provincial governors and armies have been subordinated to it. Having executed brilliant image this assignment of the senate, Pompeii has received other task - to pacify tsar Mitridata, as has led to expansion of territories of Rome in Asia in 65-62 B.C. In a result Syria after overthrow of dynasty Selevk’s became the Roman province, and Armenia, Judea and Galilee is vassal Empires.
In the meantime after several failures at consular elections patrician Catalina has tried to lift populist revolt against the senate, but in December 63 B.C. Consul Cicerone has publicly exposed conspirators and has there and then achieved execution of five rebels without court. In Asia of Pompey played a role east a check is in-shah that is tsar of tsars. His victories have enriched as the Roman state, and it personally is Pompey began rich man Crass. However, having returned in mother country, it, according to the law, has combined powers of the dictator, has dismissed the legions and was to Rome the private person. Thereof act it appeared without authority and has been forced to stretch a hand to Caesar, then still to the young ambitious man not having behind self military merits and achieved consulate.
In result there was a first triumvirate Julia Caesar, Pompey and Crass. Caesar has actually received individual consulate in 59 B.C., and Pompeii the soldier has achieved the statement the senate of the actions and rewordings. Then it married daughter Caesar, Julia. In 58 B.C. Caesar has been appointed by the governor of Illyrian, Cisalpes and Transalpes Gallia to five years instead of traditional year. After Caesar Pompey's departure became the first citizen on authority on Rome, but without real authority.
There has come an epoch of the Gallic wars caused by easing of the Roman influence in the West in connection with military actions in the east, and also internal problems. Romans have felt military pressure of the German tribes: Svev’s, under leadership Ariovist, have taken hold of Gallic area Secvan’s and pressed on Gelvet’s in modern Switzerland, inducing them to search for the new grounds in Gallia. Caesar, becoming the governor of Gallia, immediately attacked them in 58 B.C. For eight years it became the master of all Gallia and Belgium, and the campaigns - through the channel to Britain and through Rein has as though shown the successors a direction of the further Roman policy. Resistance of Gaul’s has been severely suppressed - army under leadership Vercingetorig in 52 B.C. In fight at Alesia has suffered defeat.
Caesar has decided to achieve absolute authority. For him the position expecting it after his pro consulate could be critical. It did not want, after has glorified Rome the victories and gains, to be back is similar Pompey, the simple citizen. It did not want to search for favor of the senate if against him charges because of his any actions will be put forward during the previous consulate in 59 B.C. Therefore Caesar has decided to achieve ahead of schedule new consulate - even before the termination of term of the pro consulate as both posts guaranteed to it inviolability in case of any charges. When this question is after two-year-old struggle, has been solved not for the benefit of Caesar, last on January 10, 49 B.C. With the army tempered in fights with words "the die is cast" has passed through Rubicon, the boundary small river separating Cisalpes Gallia from then Italy.
And Pompey, not ready to war, armies for Caesar's attack in Dirrahia on the Balkans began to collect the senate hastily. Caesar has attacked on Pompey, the truth this time itself has hardly avoided defeat at attack Dirrahia, but in 48 B.C. In fight at Pharsalus in Thessaly it all the same has crushed armies Pompey. Itself Pompeii ran to Egypt where has been killed under the order of advisers of pharaoh Amenemhet III. His head have given Caesar when it has arrived to Egypt. Caesar, having interfered in the Egyptian dynastic conflicts, has erected on a throne of the brother of the pharaoh, Amenhotep IV, together with his sister Nefrusebek more known as Cleopatra from whom Caesar has entered intimacy. Down to 45 B.C. it had to pacify supporters Pompey and the senate in Africa and in Spain. Caesar's victory was full and it is more surprising his attitude to the defeated enemies. Victories of Rome were long since accompanied by destruction of the opponent and when civil civil strifes have begun, the same principle has been applied and to Romans. That the winner has decided to combine the main republican posts was unusual: it became the dictator for 10 years that did not prevent it to incur sometimes and consulate; then has appropriated censor authority, under a name prefecture morum, and as it as patrician, could not be tribune is that and tribune authority. At the same time the place of honor between both consuls has been given to it in the senate and the right to the first to express the opinion that was designated by expression princeps senatus. In February 44 B.C. Cesar has appointed itself « the lifelong dictator », and about 46 B.C. In Rome vein Cleopatra with son Caesar is Caesarion that suggested an idea senators about dynastic thoughts of the dictator (though Cesar and could not have lawful children from Cleopatra, not a citizen of Rome). At those who was afraid of all it, the plan of murder of Caesar has ripened, his conspirators under leadership Brut and Cassius on March 15 have carried out 44 B.C. after that began a new stage of internal political intrigues.
Successor Caesar, young Octavian, offended Antonio’s, has adjoined the senate. But both consuls sent by the senate with armies against Antonio, were lost in battle. Octavian, conceding to the requirement of legions of Caesar, has reconciled with Antonius and, having accepted in the general union of another Cesar’s, Mark Lepid, the second triumvirate has made with them. The second triumvirate was not the private transaction, as the first, and the official body invested with extensive powers: under the decision of national assembly on triumvirate government - Triumviri reipublicae constituendae causa has been assigned. After death of both competitors, all constituent authority has concentrated in hands of one Octavian. However it has taken advantage of this extreme authority only to remunerate and attach the soldier, and then has combined her from itself. This period of the Roman history has given rise Principatus, or Empires.
Roman Empire (in Latin Imperium Romanum) has existed from 30-27 B.C. for 476 year. It was one of the major periods of a history of Ancient Rome when it has reached the greatest prosperity in the majority of spheres. All governors of this time were titled by Emperors (imperatores), however in a history it is accepted to divide the imperial period on Principatus and dominate when a number of Emperors have demanded also a title dominus - "mister". Further under impacts of Egyptians and barbarians the Empire has broken up on Western Roman and East Roman, last was soon transformed to the independent state - Byzantium. The official history considers that falling of the Western Roman Empire on September, 4 476 years is the end actually all Roman Empire. Actually falling of Roman Empire has taken place in 324 when Rome on Volga-Akhtuba was grasped with armies of pharaoh Tutmoses III.
Let's result the list of the Roman Emperors for five hundred years, in brackets of date of board:
Dynasty Julian-Claudius (27 B.C. – 68)
August (27 B.C. – 14)
First dynasty Flavius (69-96)
Actually rules one Emperor Tit Vespasianus Flavius (9-184), Emperor (69-96)
Dynasty of Antonian (96-192)
Hadrian, Adrian (117-138)
Antoninus Pius (138-161)
Markus Aurelius (161-180) and Lucius Verus (161-169)
Dynasty of Severan (193-235)
Septimis Severus (193-211)
Alexander Severus (222-235)
Dynasty of Gordian – Grach’s, pharaohs New Empire of Egypt (238-244)
Gordian I (238)
Gordian II (238)
Gordian III (238 - 244)
Constantine's dynasty (Second dynasty of Flavius) (305-457)
Constantius I Chlorus (305-306) - son of Titus Vespasianus Flavius who has been given birth in 126 year.
Constantine I Great (306-337)
Constantine II (337-340)
Constantius II (337-361)
Constans I (337-350)
Flavius Julian II (Julian the Turncoat) (361-363)
Outside of dynasty (Flavius)
Dynasty of Valentinian-Theodosius (Flavius)
Valentinian I (364-375)
Valens II (364-378)
Valentinian II (375-392)
Theodosius I Great (379-395)
Theodosius II (408-450)
The main maintenance of it five hundred years the period became process of all-round association of a classical antiquity in which the basic role was played with the Roman republic, but the truth, it was, mainly, a gain and submission to itself others; then this process is spiritualized and becomes complicated (is differentiated).
Integration of the Ancient world consists:
1. In likening (assimilation) of conquerors and subdue, the Roman and provincial elements.
2. In change of the most uniting authority.
3. In association of parts with the whole by means of the state administration for the first time created specially for this purpose.
4. In association of legal legal ideals.
5. In association of moral ideals.
In a long chain and sometimes fast alternation of Emperors weakness Principatus, created August and based on a combination of a republican magistracy with a military monarchy is shown. The magistracy can be based on election or on purpose; the monarchy demands heredity. In a history Principatus we see action of both principles together, is frequent in damage each other, sometimes in an original combination, on the basis of only Roman institute of adoption: Emperor adopts the successor.
The western part of Roman empire is result of expansion on the West. Rome settled down in the Volga region.
Predecessor August, Octavian was in one person, so to say, the president of the senate and Emperor. Both these of an element merged in a honorable title of the first Emperor of August - "esteemed", - which to it have been brought in 27 B.C. the senate. In this title there is a religious shade. During this period antique history gods of people already all have died, therefore began to idolize authority.
However, and in this respect August showed the big moderation. It has permitted to name the sixth month his name, but did not want to admit in Rome the idolize being content only an epithet divi filius (the son divine Julia). Only outside of Rome it allowed to build temples in the honor, and that only in connection with Rome (Roma et Augustus) and to establish special priestly board is Augustala. The authority of August so essentially differs from authority of the subsequent Emperors that is designated in a history by the special term - Principatus. Character Principatus, as a matter of fact, is diarchy it is shown especially clearly concerning August to the senate. Caesar always had appreciably patronizing arrogance and some neglect. August not only has restored the senate and has helped many senators to conduct such way of life which corresponded to their high position - it has directly divided authority with the senate. All provinces have been divided on senatorial and imperial. In the first category all have got subdue areas, and also their governors, in a rank of proconsuls. Proconsuls were appointed on a lot in the senate and remained under his control. They possessed only civil authority and had no at the order of armies. Provinces in which armies and where there could be a war settled down, have been left under direct authority of August and appointed him legate, in rank proprietors.
The internal policy of August had conservative is national character. Caesar has widely opened to provincial’s access to Rome. August cared of being naturalized in and in the senate only as quite reliable people. In republic there was no constant army; soldiers swore the commander called them under banners for year, and late is «before the termination of a campaign». With accession of August the authority of the commander-in-chief becomes lifelong, an army - to constants. Service life in army in 20 years then "veteran" acquires the right for honorable pension and maintenance with money or the ground is established. August conducted numerous wars in Europe, Asia and Africa. At it Egypt became only a province of Rome.
August has based dynasty Julio-Claudius (14-69). Lacks of the mechanism created on August, were found out immediately on his death. It has left non-authorized a question on collision of interests and the rights of his stepson Tiberius and his native grandson, unusable young men. Tiberius (14-37), on the merits, mind and experience had the right to the first place in the state, but did not wish to be the despot: rejecting a title of mister (dominus), and flatterers so to it addressed, it spoke, that it mister only for slaves, for provincials - Emperor, and for citizens - the citizen. On place Tiberius, about last which minutes of a life we know nothing, the son of his nephew popular and all mourned Germanic - Caligula (37-41), the young man nice, but soon mad from authority getting to it both fallen ill by megalomania and reached up to frenzied cruelty has been proclaimed. The senate has sighed freely after death Caligula and has dreamed of republic, but praetorians gave it new Emperor, in person Claudius (41-54), son of Germanic. Claudius in 46 has transformed Empire Cotis into a province Thrace, and from Mauritania has made the Roman province. At it have won Britain, it is final subdue Agricola. Intrigues, and can be, and crime Agripine, have opened a way to authority to its son, Nero (54-68). In this case, as almost always in first two centuries of Empire, historians consider that the principle of heredity has harmed it. Character and tastes young Nero in any way did not correspond to his position because of what at the end of life Nero military mutiny has burst. Emperor has committed suicide. And the next year civil War was replaced and three Emperors is Galba, Otho, Vitellius were lost one after another.
The period of distemper has ended at Emperor Flavius who has begun a new dynasty of Emperors of Rome and Byzantium. In a result the authority has got to the commander-in-chief in war against rising Jews, Titus Vespasianus Flavius, born in 9. Under the version of an official history, in person Vespasiana (70-79 years) the Empire has received the organizer whom she very much required after all internal distemper and revolts. It has suppressed revolt Batav’s, has settled attitudes with the senate and has put in order a state farm, thus was sample ancient Rome simplicity of customs. To his son, Titus (79-81 years), destruction of Jerusalem is attributed. And younger son of Vespasianus, Domitian (81-96 years), has once again proved that the principle of heredity does not bring to Rome of happiness. Domitian imitated Tiberius, was at war on Rein and on Danube though it is not always successful, was at enmity with the senate and as it is considered, was lost as a result of plot.
Actually Titus Vespasianus Flavius was uniform in three persons. It has lived a long life is with 9-th for 184 year and was Emperor about 70 for 96. This fact is easily looked through on coins of that period: everywhere there is a same person of the great figure of the past. Titus Vespasianus Flavius became the first patriarch of the mankind who has formulated idea of Christianity and prediction occurrence in the future of the Alive God–Savior. It was not only Emperor, but also Great Pontific that is the cleric and the Leader of Youth. His belief in monotheism has decisively changed a religious and political life of Roman Empire. In 96 Flavius has departed from has put and has left on a residence in a province Judea where conducted a spiritual life, visiting Arabia and Egypt. In the Bible  Titus Vespasianus Flavius has got under name Abraham. His first child, Flavius Valerius Constantius Chlorus (Chlorine), was born about 126 years and became bible Isaac which Abraham tried to sacrifice God - so it tried to approach the moment of occurrence of the Savior. However the God has kept Flavius from this unnecessary victim. Romans highly have estimated activity of the first Flavius, the founder of Christianity. Is in honor of his birth in 9 Romans have named modern epoch an epoch of Christianity A.C. Therefore they divided a history prior to the beginning of a Christian epoch - B.C. And after its beginning is the beginning of an epoch, probably, was by mistake displaced by A.C. However back for 9 years, therefore zero year of our era is taken will defend from the present date exactly for nine years.
After leaving from authority Flavius there has come an epoch of Five Good Emperors. Emperor became the person from the environment of the senate - the Nerve (96-98). It, having adopted Ulpius Trajanus (98-117), has given Rome one of his best Emperors. Trajan it came from Spain. His eminence became an attribute of the social process which was taking place in Empire. After sovereignty of two patricians sorts, Julio and Claudius, on the Roman throne plebeian Galba has appeared, then it I "was mastered" by Emperors from municipal of Italy and, at last, - the provincial from Spain. Trajan has opened itself a number of the Emperors who have made the second century of our era by the best epoch of Empire: all of them are Adrian (117-138), Antoninus Pius (138-161); Mark Aurelius (161-180) is provincial origin (two Spaniards, except for Antoninus which was from southern Gallia). All of them are obliged by the eminence to procedure of adoption by the predecessor. Trajan has become famous as the commander the Empire has reached at it the greatest size. Trajanus has moved apart its limits in the north where Dacia has been won and colonized, from Carpathian mountains up to Dnestr, and in the east where four provinces have been formed: Armenia (small - source Euphrates). Are Mesopotamia (a lower reaches of Euphrates), Assyria (area of the Tiger) and Arabia (in a southeast from Palestine). Speak, that it has been made not so much with the aggressive purposes, how many to remove from Empire, barbarous tribes and nomads of desert threatened to it constant intrusion. Actually, Rome was in the north from these provinces, on Caspian Sea, and Asian peoples began to threaten directly to well-being of Empire. It is visible already from with what diligence Trojan and his successor Adrian, strengthened borders, filled enormous shaft, erected stone bastions and towers which rests were kept up to now - in northern England, in Moldova (Trojan a shaft), a shaft limes (Pfahlgraben) from Rein (in northern Nassau) through Main and southern Germany to Danube.
At last to authority there has come Emperor Commodus (180-193) who has allowed favorites to operate the state, and itself, is similar Nero, aspired to deserve laurels not on a field of battle, and in circus and an amphitheater. However his tastes were not artistic as at Neuron, they were gladiatorial. It was killed by conspirators. But also to them plot has not brought authority. The protege of conspirator’s prefect Pertinaks, Senator Didy Julian, bought to porphyry at praetorians for enormous money, were not kept at authority. At this time Illyrian legions have proclaimed Emperor of the commander, Septimius Sever.
There has come an epoch of a dynasty Sever (193-235). Septimius it came from Leptisa, that in Africa. In his pronunciation the accent of the African, as in speech Adrian is accent Spanish was audible. His eminence marked successes of the Roman culture in Africa. Here traditions Punt’s, strange image connection with the Roman customs were still alive. If well formed Adrian has restored tomb Epaminond Septimius as the legend says, has constructed mausoleum Hannibal. But Punt’s now was at war for Rome. Neighbors of Rome have again felt on themselves a heavy hand of victorious Emperor; the Roman eagles flew borders from Babylon on Euphrates and Ctesifon on the Tiger up to York in the far north where has died Septimius in 211. Septimius Sever, the protege of legions, was the first soldier on Caesar's throne. Rough energy which it has brought with him self from the African native land has degenerated in wildness in his son Caracalla who has seized power, having killed the brother. It showed the African sympathies, everywhere putting statues Hannibal even more frankly. However, Rome is obliged to it, and magnificent terms (Terms Caracalla). As well as father, it tirelessly protected the Roman grounds on two fronts - on Rein and on Euphrates. His uncontrollability has increased numbers of enemies - there was a plot among militaries surrounding it which victim it has fallen. But, we shall recollect once again what exactly to soldier Caracalla Rome is obliged to one of the greatest civil feats - by granting to all provincials of the right of the Roman citizenship.
Caracalla not only has given to Africans the right to borrow the state posts in Rome, but also for the first time has entered the Egyptian into the senate. It has prepared an eminence of Egypt and crash of Roman Empire that has taken place when pharaoh Tutmoses III of dynasty Gordian will grasp Rome in 324. Occurrence Punt on Caesar's throne has turned back ascension to authority of their fellow tribesmen from Syria. To the sister of widow Caracalla, Meuse, it was possible to remove from a throne murderer Caracalla and to plant instead of his grandson known in a history under Semitic name Elagabalus is a name of the Syrian deity of the sun. His accession a strange episode in a history of the Roman Emperors: it was an eminence in Rome east theocrat. But priest was difficult for presenting in the chapter of the Roman legions and consequently Elagabalus has soon been replaced with his cousin, Alexander Sever (222-235). To a throne Parthian tsars and the religious - national updating of the Persian east caused by it many years in campaigns against Persians have forced young Emperor to lead accession Sassanid’s. It is interesting, that for Emperor the religious aspect had great value. To it testifies it Lararium in which images of all gods which esteemed in Empire, and including Christ have been collected. Alexander Sever was lost near Mainz is from hands Roman the soldier.
Absence of truly imperial dynasty has led to crisis of Roman Empire. After murder of last North legions have proclaimed Emperor Maksimin, the son of Got and Alan, the former shepherd who has made fast military career, due to the athletic build and bravery. This celebration of northern barbarity has caused response in Africa where Emperor has proclaimed proconsul Gordian. Gordian’s conducted the sort from patricians Grach’s and, from last tsar of Rome is Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (535 - 509 B.C.). Actually Gordian were descendants of the Egyptian pharaohs from Trojans - Atlantis. War for authority between soldier's Emperors and imperial dynasty Gordian began.
After bloody collisions the authority has remained in hands of the young man, grandson Gordian. When it with success reflected in the east of Persians, it was will overthrow other barbarian on the Roman military service - Phillip Arab, the son of the predatory sheikh in the Syrian-Arabian desert. This Semite could celebrate magnificently in 248 millennium of Rome, but reign it is short. It legate Deices with the help the soldier has taken away from him authority. Deices though also the Roman origin, but the family of it for a long time has already been moved in Panonia where it and was born.
Then authority his comrade, Valerian, accepted in co-rule has grasped son Hallien: Valerian was lost in captivity at Persians, and Hallien has held on up to 268. Roman Empire was already so is loosened, that the whole areas were separated from it under independent management of provincial commanders-in-chief, for example, Gallia and Palmyra an Empire in the East. The main stronghold of Rome was at that time general’s Illyrian (Slavic) origin. There, where the danger threatening from it is ready, has forced to rally defenders of Rome, one by one were selected, under the consent of commanders, the most capable commanders and managers: Claudius II, Aurelius, Tests and Penalties. Aurelius has subdued Gallia and Empire Zinovia, has restored former limits of Empire. It has enclosed with a new wall Rome which for a long time has grown from frameworks of walls Servius Tulles and became open, defenseless city - in fact Rome was in Volga region steppes. All these proteges of legions soon perished from hands indignant the soldier: Tests, for example, was lost that, caring of well-being of the native province, the soldier has forced to plant vineyards on Rein and Danube.
Because of instability in Roman Empire and a withdrawal from a dynastic principle of change of Emperors, Gordian’s have based in Egypt the New Empire of pharaohs, having revived in it a principle of divinity of Emperors and tsars. Amplification of Egypt has immediately led to easing of Roman Empire. Pharaohs of dynasty Gordian’s began to supervise places of extraction of silver, sharply having limited inflow to Empire of silver money. In result economic independence of Rome has been for ever undermined.
In Rome there has come the period tetrarchs and dominatus (285-324).
Under the decision of officers in Haledon in 285 has been erected on throne Diocletian adequately finished a number of pagan Emperors of Rome. Transformations Diocletian has completely changed character and forms of Roman Empire: they have as though summed up previous historical process and have begun the new political order. Diocletian has shelved histories Princepatus August and has created Roman-Byzantium one rules. This Dalmatian, dress on him self a crown of east tsars, has finally discredited regal Rome. In chronological frameworks of the history of Emperors outlined above the greatest historical revolution of political character was gradually made: provinces submitted Rome. In the field of state it affected in disappearance of dualism on behalf of sovereign who in political system of August was Princeips for Roman, and for provincials is Emperor. This dualism gradually disappears, and the military authority of Emperor absorbs a civil republican magistracy Principatus. While there was still vividly a legend and traditions of Rome, the idea of Principatus kept also; but when at the end of III century the imperial authority has got to the African, the military aspect in authority of Emperor has completely superseded the Roman heritage. At the same time often intrusion into the state life of the Roman legions, doom imperial authority of the commanders, has humiliated this authority, has made its accessible to any ambitious man and has deprived with its durability and duration. It has induced Diocletian to reorganize imperial authority on the basis of collective nature and hierarchies, having divided her on four people.
Four tetrarchs were based at all in Rome, and in other cities, is closer to borders - the military staffs supervising protection of Empire from enemies (Sassanid’s than Persia) and barbarians (basically of germen, and also numerous nomads from east steppes) on Rein and Danube. These cities are known as «capitals of tetrarchs». Though Rome has ceased to be working capital, the Eternal city remained nominal capital of all Empire. It has not been reduced to a level of a province, but submitted to prefect of city (praefectus urbis). Further the same system has been entered in Constantinople.
Let's note that on an arrangement of zones of the responsibility tetrarch it is possible to draw a conclusion that Ancient Rome was not in Italy, and was away from the Mediterranean.
Four capitals tetrarchs is were:
1. Nicomedia in northwest Asia Minor (now Izmit in Turkey), base for protection against intrusions from the Balkans and from Persia. Nicomedia, instead of Constantinople (received this name later), was capital Diocletian, east and meanest August. By last reorganization of Empire in 318 Constantine I Great this area adjoining to the strongest enemy - Persia, became praetorians prefecture Oriens (East), a nucleus of the future Byzantium.
2. Sirmia (now Sremcka-Mitrovitsa in area Vojvodina of modern Serbia, about Belgrade) on the Danube border was capital Galleria, east Cesar. She became the Balkan-Danube prefecture Illyrian.
3. Mediolanum (now Milan, about the Alps), instead of Rome, was capital Maksimian, the western August. His area became Italy and Africa with insignificant extent of external borders.
4. August Treverorum (now Trier, in Germany) was the remote capital Constancy Chlorine, western Caesar, about the important border across Rein. It is interesting, that a little bit earlier she was capital of Gallic Emperor Tetrikus I. This part of Empire became prefecture Gallia.
Tetrarchs it began to be combined with dominatus. Dominatus (in Latin dominatus, from an Latin dominus is mister, sovereign, master, that is literally - the state, domination is a form of board in Ancient Rome, come on change Principatus.
Principatus (in Latin principatus, from princeps is the first senator, the senator opening session) is a conditional term in the historical literature for a designation developed in Ancient Rome during early Empire (27 B.C. - 193 (284)) the specific form of a monarchy at which some republican establishments were formally kept, and Emperor was called Princeps. The system Principatus began to be made out at August which authority was based on connection of various magistracies. August and his successors, being Princeps the senate, simultaneously concentrated in the hands the maximum civil (lifelong national tribunes) and military authority. The republican device formally continued to exist: the senate, comitia (national assemblies), and magistracies (except for censors).
Word dominus usually designate the period of a history of Ancient Rome with IV till VI century. Differently this period can refer to as Late Antiquity. Believe, that the term dominus occurs from usual the then references to Emperor is «mister and the god» (dominus et deus). The word dominus also can be translated as sovereign. Dominate became the following stage of gradual transformation of the Roman republic in a monarchy with unlimited authority of Emperor.
In 305 20-years term of board Diocletian and Maximian has ended, and both have resigned. Them Cesar, Halery and Flavius Valerie Constancy Chlorine, both steels also have appointed August two new Cesar, Maximinus in – Galleria and Flavius Valerie Sever - in Constantia. Four together they have formed the second tetrarch.
Thus, crisis of Roman Empire has led to authority the oldest dynasty Flavius based by Titus Vespasianus Flavius in 69. Caesar became two Flavius is Constancy Chlorine and the North. Between 309 and 313 the majority of applicants are for imperial posts have died or have been killed in internal conflicts. Constantine (son of Constancy) has ordered to strangle Chlorine Maximian in 310. Halery has died of the natural reasons in 311. Constantine has won Macsency fight at Milvia the bridge in 312, and soon Macsency has been killed. Maximin has committed suicide in Tars in 313, having suffered defeat from Liciny. By this time remained only two Emperors: Constantine - in the West and Liciny is in the east. Tetrarch has come to the end, though only Constantine has won 324 Liciny, has united both half of Roman Empire and has proclaimed itself unique August.
During this restless period Flavius have returned an ideological basis of the authority as the Christianity offered to people of Roman Empire still Titus Vespasianus Flavius in I century. Flavius Valerie Constantine was monotheist, believing in occurrence of the Christ. It has thought up a sign on the Savior which became subsequently a Christian symbol. Have named it is labarum.
Labarum (in Latin Labarum) is a banner which was established for the armies by Emperor Constantine Great owing to vision by him in the sky of a sign of a cross. He on the end of a staff had monogram of the Christ, and on the banner there was an inscription: in Latin «Hoc vince» or «With it win» . The first mention about labarum contains at Lactancy (has died about 320). According to this author, the image labarum was to Constantine in dream, before fight at Milvia the bridge (312). Simultaneously it has heard a voice saying words: Greek ἐν τούτῳ νίκα and in Latin. «In hoc signo vinces», that is «with it is familiar you will win». Under Constantine's insisting his soldiers have placed the image labarum on the boards and next day have gained a loud victory which has presented their leader an imperial throne.
Evsevius from Cessaria offers a little bit other treatment of these events. In « the Church history » it dates the first phenomenon labarum to Constantine by time of his service in Gallia that is long before fight at Milvia the bridge. Subsequently, referring to the oral message of the Emperor, Evsevius has corrected and detailed the data about labarum. From Constantine's transmitted Evsevius the words, is labarum was to Emperor before fight at Milvia the bridge: the huge cross has closed itself the sun - there was it at the presence of all 40-thousand Roman army. As any, from forty thousand soldiers, have not left more certificates on so exclusive event, message Evsevius is considered by modern scientists as a pious legend of the biographer of Emperor. Falsifiers of a history too give false treatment of occurrence labarum as Christian symbol. As they said, she will not be coordinated to the well-known data that Constantine like has accepted Christianity only on mortal bad and till last day kept a title of the Supreme pagan priest - Great Pontific.
Actually Constantine Great was monotheist and Great Pontific, as well as his grandfather – Titus Vespasianus Flavius (9-184). Jesus Christ was not born yet, and the religion of Christianity only affirmed in the rights. Emperor Constantine has issued the decree according to which the Christianity began one of the state religions in the Roman and Byzantium Empires. In the Bible  Constantine Great has got under name Jacob named later Israel - the father of 12 knees of Israel or Kubanits. The present a full name of Emperor is Flavius Valerie Aurelius Constantine Kubara.
The way to Constantine's authority was not simple. Proclaimed by the British legions in 312 year Cesar, it has won under walls of Rome of the contender, last protégé Roman praetorians, Caesar Macsencius. This defeat of Rome has opened a way to a celebration of Christianity to which the further success of the winner has been connected. Constantine guaranteed to Christians not only freedom of confession in Roman Empire, but also a recognition of their church on the part of the government. When the victory over Adrianople in 323 above August of the east, Licinius, relieved Constantine of last contender, Christian church became his base one rule like monarch.
Constantine has replaced tetrarch Diocletian with the organization of four prefectures. It has finished administrative transformations of the predecessor to that special political style which became then known under a name Byzantium, with numerous court posts and new titles. For giving to Christianity of the state status Constantine has called a cathedral in 324 in Nicaea. The idea of Christianity has got accustomed in Empire due to terrible to misfortune - to falling of Rome under impacts of descendant Gordian’s of Egyptian pharaoh Tutmoses III. In the summer 324 Great Rome has been seized by invaders who have returned to it his former Egyptian name - Memphis. The most part Roman patricians and plebeian sorts, including children of Emperor Constantine, were taken prisoner.
Constantine Great had to carry out the whole complex of political, economic and ideological actions to restore the lost positions of Rome. The Roman provinces have been cut off from mother country and Bosporus Empires where gold and silver coins were minted and precious metals were extracted.
Constantine Great has taken up a sacred rank Great Pontific, becoming the following is after Grandfather Titus Vespasianus Christian Pontific. The new capital was necessary for new Empire also - she became Constantine's hailstones. Thus, that was dreamed Caesar's to contemporaries has come to pass and August about what spoke with alarm in odes Horace’s - there was New Rome - in the West, the successor of the ancient city of Romulus. Constantine's position was so strong, that it became the founder of a dynasty which conducted the sort from the first Flavius, Fabius, Hercules’s, the Zeus-Jupiter and Uranium - Adam. The imperial authority again became divine.
After Constantine Great-Kubara-Jacob-Israel death in 354 the authority has passed to his three sons: Constancius has received Constantinople and east prefecture, Constants is Illyrian prefecture and Italy, Constantine II is prefecture Gallia with Africa. Civil strife between younger brothers and revolt in which was lost won, have connected all authority in hands Constancius. In 361 legions of Gallia have proclaimed Emperor of escaped relative Constancius is Julian. This overdue Neo-Platonist in porphyry has undertaken an excessive problem - to revive pagans and to stop becoming Christianity. The destiny, however, has not allowed it even in glory of time to compete with an ideal of Christianity is Titus Vespasianus Flavius: two years later, won above Persians, it was lost from casual enemy arrows. His successor proclaimed in military camp in Persia, has died on a return way, not come up to Constantinople. Prefect Valentinianus elected by Emperor (364-375) has based the second Christian dynasty consisted of his brother Valent and two juvenile sons, Gracianus and Valentinianus II, reigning simultaneously, but adhered opposite opinions concerning the main rage of that day is Aryans. Internal disagreements were overshadowed thunder-storm which has unexpectedly approached from the north. An advance party of the German hordes, West Got, went through Danube and at Adrianople have broken armies Valent, having turned their rests in flight during which was lost Valens. It has got in the Bible  under a name Judas, his Russian name was Balomir. Then young man Gratsian has accepted in co-rule brave Theodosius which after death of sons Valentinianus began, about 392, last master of all Roman Empire.
Flavius Theodosius, (in Russian is Arbat), and in the Bible  it is known under name Moses. Has glorified it self that has headed an outcome Roman from Rome occupied by Egyptians on Volga-Akhtuba. It has thought up first Easter at spring 378, becoming the first holiday of people believing in monotheism, and has agreed with pharaoh Tutmoses IV upon resettlement from Rome to Europe his relatives and monotheists. The future Emperor in January 379 has organized transition of refugees on ice of Black Sea from Taman to Crimea, for what has received military rank Dux Moesiea. Moses is a name of the Roman province Moesiea that is territory of Romania, Bulgaria and Crimea. Flavius Theodosius in 379 on spurs of Crimean Mountains has allowed people of the Table of the Precept, having based three religions: Catholic Church, Judaism and an Islam. In 382 it has collected the Universal cathedral which has fixed bases of monotheism and Christianity as the state religion of the Byzantium Empire in Constantinople. Then it has organized resettlement of Israelis-Kubanits to the Balkans, the north of Italy and to the Western Europe.
In 395 his authority has passed to his two juvenile sons appointed on August: to Arcadius is in the east and Honorius is in the West. These two half of Empire, Greek and Roman, it was not so fated to incorporate. In the western half posterity Theodosius rule like king 60 years, but not in Rome occupied by Egyptians, and in Ravenna. After Honorius the throne has borrowed Valentinianus III (423-455), but the history of Rome in V a century is measured any more by years of governors, and years of disasters from intrusion of barbarians. Under an impact, so-called, Hun, - and actually are Kubanits-Israelis, the German tribes have attacked on all line of border the Western Roman Empire: in 410 West Got has intruded on territory of Italy. Following southern Gallia, Spain and Africa have been borrowed with the German tribes and take away from Roman Empire.
The next Emperor became legendary Attila which called Flavius Aetius, and in the Bible  Joshua. In the beginning of 440th it has headed the second wave of resettlement Roman and peoples of the Volga region on the West. His campaign was accompanied by unprecedented cruelty and vandalism. His armies have finally destroyed Bosporus Empire, have reached the Balkans and the Western Europe where persistently battled to the recent fellow countrymen - immigrants Kubanits-Israelis Flavius Theodosius. Byzantium name of Attila is Theodosius II. Successor Attila his grandfather is Flavius Theodosius has selected. Attila also has received from the father, the son of Theodosius is Flavius Arcadius, Arnat, Mundzuk, a throne of Russia. Dynasty of Flavius, instead of territory referred to as Russia.
Attila has attacked the Western Roman Empire. At this time vandal Stilihon operating Empire instead of Honorius, has rescued her from West Got Alaric and hordes Radagays. Then West Got Theodoric has helped the western Romans to reflect Attila. But the German defenders of the Western Rome everyone become more numerous and, at last, realize the force: with 456 up to 472 of the western Roman throne disposes svey Ricimer, and in 476 herul Odoakr removes to porphyry from last juvenile Emperor of the Western Rome carrying, as though derisively, name Romulus August and accepts a national rank Konung of Italy. Circulation of times has come to the end: Odoakr, the leader of the German militia, demands for it third of Italian ground. From distribution of third of ground defeated, former great Roman, began that growth of Rome which has expanded it to Euphrates and up to Rein. The same requirement, showed to the Rome newcomers because of Rein, marks his end. But in a history the end is almost always and the new beginning. Pagan Rome has been defeated by two forces hostile to it: barbarians (Egyptians and germen) and Christianity. Removal in 357 from the senate, on an order of Christian Emperor, an altar and Victoria's statue as though symbolized defeat of pagan Rome. The Christianity became the new force uniting the Byzantium Empire and the destroyed Western Roman Empire. New Rome – Constantinople the new religion, introduced to it Titus Vespasianus Flavius, has turned Christianity into the political tool of new authority and with it has won the western barbarous world, having penetrated into him further and more deeply, than legions have managed ever.
November 2008 - April 2009
(The bibliography corresponds to the data of the book"Vedas of Russ")