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Modernization of Russia
Holy Russia - Third Rome
The new subject of international law, the State Holy Russia - Third Rome, 21.09.2013.
Nova Church of Holy Russia
Orthodoxy and Christianity require reforming and release of heresy and obscurantism. 21.09.2011.
Synchronization of historical and religious Chronicles New!!!
The author correctly synchronizes historical and religious Chronicles of the Ancient World based on a short chronology and linking events to unique celestial phenomena reflected in the annals and Scriptures. The author believes that discrepancies in dates, geographical localities and ethnic origin of historical and religious figures are due to erroneous traditional chronology and historical geography, as well as the deliberate adaptation of phenomena and events to an established paradigm. 20.04–25.05.2020.
Astronomical dating of Biblical events New!!!
The author's reconstruction of the history and chronology of religions is fully verified by identifying 15 celestial phenomena described in the Chronicles, including 11 Solar Eclipses, 3 Zodiacs and 1 Supernova. A chronological shift of 1780 years in the history of Ancient Egypt has been confirmed for 6 phenomena, including 3 Solar Eclipses and 3 Zodiacs, including the Eclipse of Pharaoh Takelot on August 8, 891. Astronomically confirmed the date of the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ as March 18, 1010, and the date of death of Ibrahim – the son of the Prophet Muhammad as February 7, 1152 (28 Shawwal 546 AH). 20.02–31.03.2020.
Origin of the gens Rurik New!!!
After the break of ties between the metropolis and the Russian principalities, the annals of Byzantium were cleared of the mention of "foreigners" in the management of the Empire, and the Chronicles of Russia did not have time to properly reflect the role of Rurik in world history. A study of the sources of Ancient Rome, New Rome, Russia, Arab countries, Danube and Volga Bulgaria allowed the author to identify the Russ gens and Bulgarian Khagans with the Flavian dynasty, as well as to identify Rurik, his descendants and relatives from the Macedonian dynasty (IX–XI century) and dynasty of Lecapenus (X century). The last Russian Emperor of New Rome been Yaroslav the Wise, throne name Constantine Monomachos. 11.09–21.10.2019.
Chronology of monotheistic religions New!!!
The author identified the Patriarchs of monotheism with well-known figures of human history. He proved that the oldest religion of monotheism is Christianity, which had a theoretical character in the I Millennium (Old Testament Christianity) and a practical embodiment at the beginning of the II Millennium (New Testament Christianity). Islam and Judaism emerged only in the early VII century and became radical branches of Christianity. Based on the study of solar eclipses, the author has determined the date and place of the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ (March 18, 1010 in Constantinople), the year of the death of the Prophet Muhammad (1152) and the period creation of the Quran (1130–1152). 01–27.08.2019.
Localization of Ancient Rome New!!!
The history of Ancient Rome is well studied, but hides a lot of inconsistencies and contradictions relating to the period of formation of the city and the expansion of the Romans into the world. We believe that the problems are caused by ignorance of the true localization of Ancient Rome in the Volga region on Akhtuba until the Fire on 64 and move city to location of Veii in Italy. The article also considers the aspects of ethnic origin of the peoples of the Latin League, Ancient Rome and Europe. The vector of expansion of Ancient Rome from the Volga region to the Europe coinciding with the migration flows of the Migration Period and the spread of PIE is substantiated. In addition the article considers the dynamics of growth and decline of the population of Ancient Rome in the localities from its inception to sunset and transformation. 23.06–16.07.2019.
Short chronology of Ancient Egypt New!!!
The history of Ancient Egypt generated in XIX century, every day finds out all greater discrepancy to modern realities both the newest archeological and tool data, including results of DNA researches of mummies of the Egyptian pharaohs. The chronology of Egypt as whole is considered well investigated and however it has been created for substantiation of an antiquity of Jewish people, instead of for scientific description of one of most ancient terrestrial civilizations. Author's reconstruction of chronology of Ancient Egypt has found out time shift at rate 1780 years in depth of centuries from true dating events. 1-16.06.2019.
Great Tartary or Slavic Empire
The next riddle of world historiography is solved. Present clause is devoted to history and modern condition of one of the most grandiose empires of terrestrial civilization – Great Tartary or Slavic Empires. 04–19.09.2017.
The European Aryans
In present clause the broad audience of the questions connected to probable Aryan origin of various European peoples is considered. Including aspects of possible an Aryan origin of Slavs and prospects of presence by these of special way to world around are considered. 25.02.2017 - 24.03.2017.
Summarizing of Zemsky Sobor 2016 (Land Assembly 2016)
Within the framework of carrying out Zemsky Sobor 2016 (Land Assembly 2016) on elections of Grand Prince of All Russia four Nominees have been put forward. The overwhelming majority of voices have been given for Nominee Grand Prince Valeriy Viktorovich Kubarev. Will of God and decision of participants of Assembly, Zemsky Sobor 2016 has elected lifelong Grand Prince of All Russia Valeriy Viktorovich Kubarev Grand Kubensky Rurikovich. 11.05.2016.
Yaroslavl’s Princes Rurikovich
In clause is described family tree of Grand Princes of Yaroslavl and their descendants, it is the senior branch of the Kin of Russ – Rurikovich, going back to Mstislav Great Monomachos. Kin of the Grand Princes of Yaroslavl have continued by Princes Grand Kubensky – Kubarev. 22.02.2016–11.03.2016.
All truth about Saint Prince Vladimir
In clause the all truth about Saint Prince Vladimir which is ignored Orthodox and Romanov’s historians, communistic historical science and their modern adepts, fabricating myths about Russ with « good intentions » opens without denominations. The kin of Russ - Rurikovich has created Orthodoxy and the Russian statehood, Russian people began to forget about it. Glory to Russ! 07-17.07.2015.
Brief chronology of religions
The report at XXX International conference on problems of the Civilization, 25.04.2015, Moscow, RosNoU. In the clause the final Chronological Tables of Ancient Egypt, Ancient and New Rome, Rome in Italy, Christianity, Islam and Judaism are submitted. 25.04.2015.
Canons of Orthodoxy of XIV century and the present time
The report at XXIX International conference on problems of the Civilization, 20.12.2014, Moscow, RosNoU. In the report the comparative analysis of canons of Orthodoxy of XIV century (1315-1321), displayed on mosaics and frescos of Church of Chorus in Istanbul, and modern doctrines are made. Numerous differences of events of the Holy Legend and the Gospel of the past and the present are found out. 20.12.2014.
Ethnic threats to peoples of Russia
In clause political, economic, cultural and religious aspects of consequences of ethnic opposition of radical peoples of Russia and new coming Slavic population formed as result of violent Slavic expansion in Russia in days of the Mongolian yoke are considered. The historical reasons of occurrence of ethnic contradictions are investigated, estimations of modern condition of problem (Chechelevskaya and Lubotinskaya Republics in 1905, Donetsk national republic and Lugansk national republic in 2014 in territory of Ukraine) are given and offers on decrease in escalation of ethnic opposition in territory of Eurasia are made. 09.06 - 05.07.2014.
Attribution of Rurikovich and Emperors Lecapenus
The report at XXVIII International Conference on problems of the Civilization is 26.04.2014, Moscow, RosNoU. In clause it is described detailed attribution of Ugrian Tsars with Emperors of Ancient and New Rome and Patriarches of terrestrial civilization. It is scientifically proved origins of all patriarches of monotheism and Emperors Flavius and Lecapenus from kint of Ugrian Tsars of Russ (Great), is the ethnic Finn-Ugrian from Volga region. 23.03.2014 – 24.04.2014.
Putin's Eurasian impasse
Vladimir Putin and Uniform Russia realize the Eurasian project, involving Russia and Russian people during stagnation and backlogs from World Civilization. They create Gog and Magog Empire, menacing to world peace. Why the Kremlin authority has not asked Russian Slavs – they want to live in the Asian country or to be safe Europeans? 14-22.01.2014.
Projections of the God in symbols of religion
As result of studying the extensive visual material created by 3D modeling, we have proved existence of uniform source of an origin of Projections of the God, that is religious symbolic of people. The source or quantum object refers to the Chariot of the God. We believe that on the basis of our researches, it will be possible to organize training to travel on the Universe of space navigators from the most gifted people and to create spaceships with engines as the described quantum generator is Chariots of the God or the Chariot of Cube. 25–30.08.2013.
Origin and migration of Slavs
Historical and genetic routes of migrations of the Slavs, calculated with the help from ancient Byzantium, European, Chinese, Arabian, Bulgarian and Russian chronicles and annals, and also modern researches of man's DNA chromosomes. 01-21.05.2013.
Empires of cousins of Russ
The report at scientific XXVI International conference on problems of the Civilization 26-27.04.2013, Moscow, RosNoU. In article five world Empires of cousins of Russ (Great) existing in our era on open spaces of Eurasia with cyclicity of occurrence once in 300 years are described.
Hungarian Kingdom of Russ
It is continuation of research of dynastic communications of Rurikovich. Cousin of Rurik Almysh/Almos and his children Kazan/Kurszan and Arbat/Arpad, it is all ethnic Ugrian of Russ, have based at the end of IX century – beginning of X century the Hungarian kingdom of Russ, having grasped Great Moravia. 08-11.01.2013.
Reconstruction of dynastic communications of Rurikovich in IX-XI centuries
Report at anniversary scientific XXV International conference on problems of civilization at 21-22.12.2012, RosNoU, Moscow. Corrected at 03.01.2013.
Educated Christianity of Russ
Bible – the Old Testament and the New Testament has exhausted itself. Forged the Scripts and the Sacred Legend cannot serve more as a spiritual reference point for promotion of mankind forward on the river of time. It is allowable to use only spiritual – moral potential of the ancient products being product of national creativity of Jews and Catholics, instead of divine revelations. The chronology of Bible events, an ethnic accessory of patriarchs of mankind, names, geography and original languages of heroes of the Bible do not correspond to the validity. Bible miracles have the quantum nature in the basis and submit to laws of a universe. Educated Christianity of Russ restore the religious both destroyed obscurantists religious and scientific knowledge of Christianity and revolutionary role of religion in history of civilization. 26.08. – 12.10.2012.
True Empty Tomb
Nova Church of Sacred Russia and Sacred Russ, Princes of Russia congratulates mankind on presence of True Empty Tomb and restoration of the religious and historical truth. The true has triumphed forever. 20-29.05.2012.
Orthodoxy and Islam in Old Russia
The report at XXIV International scientific conference on problems of the Civilization in Russian New University on April 20-21, 2012.
Day of Church Slavonic writing. Russ Cyril and Methodius.
In this significant holiday of Day of Church Slavonic writing and remembering Equal Apostles Sacred Cyril and Methodius, Princes of Russ convincingly ask Russian Orthodox Church and the public of the orthodox countries to return to sources and correctly to name the writing, language and church books Russian, but not Slavic. Ancient Russia was the Finno-Ugric state created by Russ Christians Rurik and Igor, Cyril and Methodius, Askold and Dir, Prophetic Oleg and Sacred Olga, Sacred Vladimir and Empress Anna Macedonian.
Wars of Russ in IX-XI centuries
In article on a rich actual material it is shown, that all wars of Russ with Byzantium in 836-1043 have been connected to deduction of a throne of empire by Russian party of Constantinople headed by the Macedonian dynasty of Russ. To the author it is proved, that two centuries co-emperors of New Rome were Great Princes Rurikovich. Last Russian emperor Jaroslav Mudry known in Tsar Grad as Constantine Monomakh was. The report at scientific XXII International conference on problems of the Civilization 22-23.04.2011, Moscow, RosNoU.
Genetic distances between cousins Rurikovich
The report at scientific XXII International Conference on problems of the Civilization, on April 22-23, 2011, RosNoU, Moscow, Russia. 24.04.2011.
Slavic-Mongolian invasion to Russia
Results of our research of an origin of Slavs have not simply scientific, but political value. In view of the received data it is necessary to form the weighed policy of interethnic and inter religious attitudes in Russia and the world. The modern hobby of Russian Slavs Rodoverie, the Aries origin and the contemptuous attitude to inhabitants of Central Asia, Caucasus, Mongolia, China and other regions of the world bears a system and logic mistake. Rodoverie in general it is senseless, in fact ancestors Rodoverian in Russia and Ukraine have left Central Asia and were Kirghiz, Altaian’s, Tajik’s, Pashtun’s, Uyghur’s and Juan-Juan, and completely not blond demigods. 12-18.03.2011.
Old Rome and Italic union of the Volga region
The scientific article on an extensive historical material proves that Ancient Rome has been created by Finno-Ugric tribe’s of Italic union of the Volga region (Idel, Bulgar). Italic peoples Vestini (Vesi), Marsi (Merya), Lucani (Lucane), Marrucini (Marri) and others till now live on Volga. Finno-Ugric named Latinas (Latinyanami) German peoples of the Volga region, differently Altyn-ami that means Gold literally. Fortress Alba Longo was called Altynbash, and Volga region Rome – Ulak-Urum. Southwest capital of Finno-Ugric of Idel was city Phanagoria or the Finn–Ugoria, being in antiquities capital Bosporus Empire and Great Bulgaria was. The web of lies of the western falsifiers of history how many would not be twisted, but to it all the same there comes the end. 10-21.02.2011.
We have proved fidelity Bulgarian theory of an origin of mankind. She proves to be true a natural vector of moving of people on a planet from the Volga region in all parties of Eurasia, and there from to Africa, Australia and America. All peoples and races of the world have taken place from Hindi-European, namely – from ethnic Finno-Ugric. 01-07.02.2011.
Correct DNA-Genealogy and glottochronology
Scientific article of Grand Prince Valeriy Kubarev on DNA-Genealogy and glottochronology is submitted to your attention. The author has created formulas with which help it is possible to define precisely time of life of the general ancestor and an epoch of formation of various languages. These formulas have received the name of Kubarev’s formula. With the help of mathematical calculations, Valeriy Kubarev has proved fidelity Barrow of Hypothesis of Maria Gimbutas and own reconstruction of a history of the world. We hope that results of research will find wide application in DNA-Genealogy and glottochronology. 04-14.01.2011.
Genealogy and genetics of Princes of Russia
The report of Grand Prince Valeriy Kubarev at XXI International Conference on problems of the Civilization 25.12.2010. Valeriy Kubarev's scientific article describes genetics of Rurikovich and Sorts of Russia. Grand Prince has scientifically defined modal haplotype of Rurik, Gedimin, Russ Aydar, Kubrat, Flavius and has theoretically described modal haplotype of Alexander Great, Jesus Christ Zlatoust, Prophet Mohammed and Genghis Khan. All these well-known people ethnically Finno-Ugrian from the Sort of Russ. 25.12.2010.
What do we celebrate on November 4? Loss of the national sovereignty...
National voting or voting of national representatives is unacceptable for elections of Tsar and Grand Duke, in fact tsar from the God, and the voice of people is not a voice Divine. Elections of Grand Duke only voting of Princes – patrimonial aristocracy of Russia are possible. 08-21.11.2010.
Turn of the Earth promptly comes nearer
This is article with the analysis of abnormal geophysical and climatic activity on a planet. 09-12.09.2010.
Baltavar – a symbol of Christianity, an Islam and Judaism
Petrarca: « When people will address to the history, his greatness come to live »
History of Russ about 3506 BC till 2012
Kubarev V.V.'s report, History of Russ about 3506 BC till 2012.
Section «Civilization aspects of the Russian history and chronology».
Tenth International scientific conference «Civilization of knowledge: global crisis and an innovative choice of Russia», Moscow, April 24-25, 2009, RosNOU.
Whose fault is it?
Emperors Lekapenos(920–945) New!!!
Based on a thorough analysis of the chronicles of New Rome, Ancient Russia, Great Bulgaria and Arab sources, the author has justified the Finno–Ugric origin of the Macedonian Dynasty and the Lekapenos Dynasty. The details of the biographies, names, dates of rule and family ties of dozens of Emperors, Khagans and Princes of Byzantium, Russ and Bulgar coincide with great accuracy, which makes it possible to identify all the studied personalities with real historical figures. In local chronicles, they have different or identical names, depending on the national characteristics of the nicknames of the studied persons. 07.12.2020–30.01.2021.
Dancing on bones (people losses of USSR in SWW)
We have found out the facts of direct falsification of human losses of military men and civil persons of the USSR within the Second World War in some millions person. Forgery is caused by activity of the propaganda machine of the USSR and false understanding of patriotism in modern Russia. By our calculations true irrevocable losses of the population of the USSR within the SWW make 7.6–8.7 million persons from among military men and the general losses with civil people 12.8–13.9 million persons. Have run away from Stalin paradise of USSR is hundred thousand (up to 1.3 million) the persons. We believe that the name of each victim of war should be taken into account and sounded publicly. 04–18.05.2019.
Territory of negative
The report at XXXVI International conference on problems of the Civilization, 20-21.04.2018, Moscow, RosNoU. As result of centuries-old struggle of the West and the East there was theological incident when the advanced countries call Russia stronghold of evil, and Russia use toga of the defender of the God and Belief, accusing other world in mortal sins. In the report attempt objectively is done to understand that occurs in the historical plan to the population and civilizations on territories of Russia and what forecast it is possible to make on the future. 20-21.04.2018.
Expansion of Rome from Volga region
The report at XXXIII International conference on problems of the Civilization, 24.12.2016, Moscow, RosNoU. In the report the extensive information on resettlement of peoples to Europe through ports of Bosporan Kingdom and Bosporus to the Mediterranean from the Volga region, Siberia and Caucasus during existence of Ancient Rome in delta of the rivers Volga and Akhtuba since VI century B.C. up to middle of VI century is submitted. 24.12.2016.
Seleucus and tribal leaders of Rome
The report at scientific XXXI International Conference on problems of the Civilization has acted on December 26, 2015, RosNoU, Moscow, Russia. In the report the hypothesis that "Macedonian" gains of IV century B.C. actually are the first wave of expansion of Ancient Rome and resettlement of peoples on South, East and West from territory of the Volga region and Caucasus is put forward and proved. 26.12.2015.
Picturesque Gospel of Church of Chora (Kariye) in Istanbul
Research of artifacts of Church of the Christ Savior in Chora (Church of Chorus, XIV century, Istanbul) has allowed restoring overlooked nuances of ancient doctrines of Byzantium Orthodoxy. The numerous facts of distortion Holy Book and Holy Legend have been found out at formation of modern Christian canons which at all are not an inviolable reality from above, and there is product of human creativity. 15.09–08.10.2014.
Images ancient Romans from Volga in artefacts
Long millennia in Idel-Rome-Memphis-Mitsraim-Itil-Saray-Batu lived from 600 000 up to one million person. Ruins of city are grandiose pantry of a history, culture and religion. Masonic scientists diligently avoid carrying out there scale excavation. In those places prospers only black selector of treasures. How long it is possible to hide to world elite of impostors true from people? 20-22.04.2010.
What to do?
Syncing the chronicles of Rome and Egypt New!!!
Based on a thorough analysis of details of military campaigns and astronomical phenomena from the chronicles of Ancient and New Rome, Ancient Egypt and Persian sources, the author confirmed the chronological shift in the history of Ancient Egypt by 1780 years in the past. The author also revealed the complot of historians to conceal the existence of Ancient Egypt in I millennium by masking the deeds of the Egyptian Pharaohs of the New Kingdom for the non-existent activity of the Kings of the Sasanian Empire. 06–29.03.2021.
The identification of the Patriarchs with historical figures New!!!
The author correctly identifies the Patriarchs of monotheistic religions with historical figures of the past based on the paradigm of a short chronology of the world and linking events to unique celestial phenomena reflected in Chronicles and Scriptural. The identification of the Patriarchs is based on the analysis of data from the genealogical trees of Jesus Christ from Lucas, Matthew, mosaics of the Church of Chora, the genealogical tree of the Prophet Muhammad and lists of the Kings of the Great Bulgaria. 21.07–27.08.2020.
We have found out and have proved that at everyone men are two direct lines of Pure Relationship on which in each generation of ancestors he has only one pair pure relatives – the forefather and the foremother. All other ancestors are the listed relatives. We also have proved that each woman has two direct lines of Pure Relationship on which in each generation of ancestors it has only one pair foremothers. On the basis of research we confirm De Facto firmness of the absolute law of succession is rule Lex Salica of Pure Relationship. 05.08 – 03.09.2014.
Thus, genealogic tree of Prophet Mohammed is proved with existence of short chronology of mankind. The history of mankind is based on acts of a dynasty Russian Varyags and Kumirs into which great prophets of mankind entered: Nay (Nuh), Abraham (Ibragim), Ismail, Jacob (Jakub), Tsars Saul-David (Urgan-Kubar/Kubrat), Jesus Christ (Isa) and Prophet Mohammed. 01-02.03.2008.
To be continued...
Thoughts aloud: Religion
Thoughts aloud: Politics
Thoughts aloud: Advice
To be continued...
||Valery KUBAREV > Modernization of Russia > Localization of Ancient Rome
Localization of Ancient Rome
Kubarev V.V., Localization of Ancient Rome, East European Scientific Journal (Warsaw, Poland), #7 (47), 2019 part 4. Pp. 28–59.
Summary: The history of Ancient Rome is well studied, but hides a lot of inconsistencies and contradictions relating to the period of formation of the city and the expansion of the Romans into the world. We believe that the problems are caused by ignorance of the true localization of Ancient Rome in the Volga region on Akhtuba until the Fire on 64. After the disaster, the Emperor Nero decided to move the city to the location of Veii in Italy. From that moment, the Chronicles of Rome reflected the events that took place with the Empire, both on Akhtuba and in Europe, until the complete decline of the city in the Volga region in the V century. Since 64 the Roman annals have adapted to the new location of the capital of the Empire, making confusion in the ancient Chronicles. The article also considers the aspects of ethnic origin of the peoples of the Latin League, Ancient Rome and Europe. The vector of expansion of Ancient Rome from the Volga region to the Europe coinciding with the migration flows of the Migration Period and the spread of PIE is substantiated. In addition the article considers the dynamics of growth and decline of the population of Ancient Rome in the localities from its inception to sunset and transformation. Key words: Ancient Rome, Veii, Ancient Egypt, Romans, Etruscans, PIE, DNA genealogy, Akhtuba, Volga region.
Statement of problem: Generally accepted stereotypes are not always true. Localization of Ancient Rome in Italy is a tribute to cultural traditions, convenient to historians and is legendary. It is not consequence of the analysis of established facts and the results of instrumental studies such as the radiocarbon method, archaeology, DNA genealogy and PIE theory. It is known that the construction of existing ancient monuments of Rome dates back to I–IV centuries, as well as described by Petrarch in the XIV century. The oldest building in Rome is the Colosseum, created in the late I century. The location of Ancient Rome on the Apennines suits public opinion, but can’t stop the scientific search and prevent finding answers to uncomfortable questions of history.
The analysis of the last of research and publications: Recently began to appear publications in which some scientists from the direction of the new chronology began to offer alternative localization of Ancient Rome. For example, they claim that in the distant past Rome was called Alexandria. On the contrary, according to the author's research, Ancient Rome was located on Akhtuba in the Volga Delta.
Allocation unresolved before parts of the general problem: It is necessary to divide modern Rome and its legendary prototype – Ancient Rome. The division also implies different geographical localization of the city. There are many contradictory facts that undermine traditional historiography. We are talking about the consequences and directions of Roman expansion in the world, such as the lack of genetic trace of the Romans in Europe, Africa and Asia, the contradiction of the theory of PIE, the lack of places of coinage of gold and silver coins, the discrepancy vector of the Migration Period the peoples of the Caucasus and the Volga region to the West. In addition, the ancient buildings of Rome created or "rebuilt" in the I–IV centuries. At the same time, the buildings are on the same level with modern streets and buildings, that is, there is no cultural layer. But in Constantinople, standing on rocks, the level of original artifacts of IV–X centuries (Million, Serpent Column, Obelisk of Thutmose III, Obelisk of Constantine, and Temple of St. Sophia) is below the current level of the streets by 3–4 meters.
The purpose of clause: The purpose of this study is to substantiate the author's hypothesis of localization of Alba Longa fortress and Ancient Rome in the region of separation of the rivers don, Volga and Akhtuba (southern Volga region). Also the aim of the work is the argumentation of the vector of expansion of Ancient Rome from the East from the Volga region to the West to Europe. In addition, it’s the establishment of time frame for the existence of Rome in different regions, determining the number and ethnic composition of the inhabitants of the metropolis in different eras.
The basic material: For the decision of task in view we shall use paradigm of occurrence of modern human civilization in the Volga region about 5500 years ago. For the first time such a hypothesis was put forward by Maria Gimbutas in 1956 [1–4]. In the author's research in 2009, we confirmed this theory, tying it to the canvas of historical events of the past . Earlier we proved that the Kings of Alba Longa (White Walls) and the Pharaohs Inebu–Hedj (White Walls) are the same historical figures . They were all ethnic Germans, Haplogroup R1b.
According to our reconstruction of history, the Trojan Aeneas and Pharaoh Menes is one historical person. Identification of characters from different eras became possible due to the presence of a chronological shift in the history of Ancient Egypt in the amount of 1780 years, discovered by the author [5, 6].
Aeneas founded the kin of the Kings of Alba Longa, or like Egyptian says Inebu–Hedj. The ancient fortress built in 1152 BC his son Ascanius or other name Julus / Iulus. King correspond Egyptian Pharaoh Athotis II, other name Iti or Djer. In our opinion, the name of the ruler gave the ancient name to the capital city, the river and the Union of the Bulgarians – the Itil tribes. We are talking about Ulak Urum, Volga and Itil Union of the Volga–Ural tribes.
In the Bulgarian Chronicles III volume, p. 81  it is said that the first ruler of the Bulgarians after the Flood in the distant past was Djam–Idji or Idjik. Djam became the first Bulgarian King of Idel from the Imen dynasty. Wife of Djam called Tanbit, but some sources assert that she and Ergi–Chakchak or Turan are the same person. The state of Djam included seven tribes, part of which was the ruling people of the Bulgarians. Therefore, the Djam Empire received the name Idel – Seven (Ide) Tribes (El). King Djam–Idji corresponds to the first King of the Italic and Latin tribes Julus, the son of Aeneas, as well as to the Pharaoh of Egypt Djer, the son of Menes. Idel has second pronunciation is Itil therefore for Bulgarian these words have the same meaning. Therefore, Ascanius–Julus–Djer – Djam is one historical person.
Note that the shape of the Seas and Oceans after the Flood of 1250–1200 BC, which coincides with the Late Bronze Age collapse or Disaster of the Bronze Age (about 1200th BC), were different than in our time. On the Volga and the Don from Troy can be reached in two ways. The first route lay through the Marmara Sea, the Bosporus, the Black and Azov Seas. The second way was through the Mediterranean Sea, the strait on the site of Suez, the Red Sea, the Indian Ocean, the Persian Gulf and the strait through Iran into the Caspian Sea .
We believe that the Kings of Alba Longa and Rome, they are the Pharaohs of Egypt, in the winter lived in Africa on the Nile, and in the summer moved to the Volga. For these movements it was necessary to contain large fleet, which is reflected in the Chronicles of Egypt and Rome.
Data known to us about the Pharaohs, the Kings of Alba Longa / Inebu–Hedj and Rome  are summarized in the Table No. 1. The first column is the Pharaoh's ordinal number. The second column is the Pharaoh's number on the Abydos list. This is followed by the name of the Pharaoh, the next column – the well–known name of the Pharaoh, if it is. In the fifth column, we note the Roman name of the Pharaoh or King, as well as the period of his reign. In the sixth column indicate information about the known events that occurred during the reign of the Pharaoh or King. There we note the duration of the reign of Pharaoh and through the fraction – period of the reign of the King. Let's close the table with column with the dates of the reign of the Pharaohs.
The localization of Alba Longa / Inebu Hedj fortress (White Walls) has two solutions. According to legend, the fortress was laid in a place where Ascanius saw white pig with pigs on the Bank of deserted river.
According to our reconstruction [5, 6], Alba Longa could be located near Mamayev Kurgan or on the island Akhtuba (White Hill). The name Akhtuba is of Egyptian origin, meaning the Life of two lands or Ankh Tawy. In the area of the Volga–Don to this day preserved several ancient artifacts dating from archaeologists XIII–VII centuries BC (look Figure No. 1). We are talking about Mamaev Kurgan 102 m high and the Sanctuary of the Trekhostrovskoe cult of fire with diameter of 150–200 m. The Sanctuary is identical to the Roman temple of Vesta. According to our hypothesis, Mamaev Kurgan at the place of division of the Volga (Itil) on two channels Ra and Akhtuba is Pyramid Menes or Aeneas. The distance between Mamayev Kurgan and the Sanctuary of Vesta is only 52 km. The Sanctuary is located at the site of the ancient navigable canal between the Volga and the Don. The canal and portage had direct access from the Volga, the Don, the Azov and the Black Sea to the Mediterranean. The channel can extend from the Mamaev Kurgan to the West to Don on the route of the canal Volgodon–2. In this region near the Sanctuary is the Rumyn Mountain. The name of Rome on Bulgarian is Rum, so the Mountain is called Roman. There is also Mountain of limestone Mare's head. The outlines of the Mountain resemble is Sphinx.
Figure No. 1. Localization of Alba Longa and of Ancient Rome on Volga - Akhtuba.
Currently, finding the ruins of Alba Longa is daunting task, as it is necessary to explore the vast region. In addition the fortress in the VII century BC was destroyed by the Romans. The walls and blocks of Alba Longa were repeatedly used as building materials.
In the X century BC arise the Latin League, the head of which was Alba Longa. The League was named, we believe, after King Latinus Silvius (1078–1028 BC). The Latin League united 30 communities located in the Volga region, the Don and Kuban. The basis of the League was seven Tribes. A significant part of the communities consisted of nomadic tribes. The nomads needed large number of horses. One of the tribes was called the Aequi (Equi), which comes from the word horse (Equus). Subsequently the nobility and Roman senators were horsemen Equitas. War chariot (biga and quadriga) was invented in the Volga region around 2000 BC. Volga region and South Ural is the habitat of ancient Ugric and Germanic people, Haplogroups N1 and R1b.
List of Latin – Italic tribes in Latin is below:
Sabini – Paeligni (Peligni) – Marsi – Marrucini – Sanniti – Osci – Lucani.
Information about Latin and Alba Longa has in the Bulgarian Chronicles . Bulgarians the ancient Romans called the Altyn–bashci and Ulak–Rumici, II volume, p. 64 and III volume, p. 89 . The Bosporan Kingdom was called Bershud. Thus, the name Alba Longa is similar to the city of Altyn–Bash (Gold or White Walls), and Ancient Rome was called Ulak Urum. So, Bulgarians called the people of Rome the Altynbashci means Latins. Most likely the self-name Latini pronounced Bulgarian as Altynci.
Therefore the word Latin literally means Altyn–yanin or golden. We believe that the name of the city–fortress White Walls (Alba Longa, Inebu Hedj, Altyn–bash) moved on to the people who became known as Latins (Altyn–bash).
The history of Alba Longa is covered with the darkness of millennia. Details of events bit by bit can be found in the Chronicles of Egypt, Rome and the Bulgarians. The study of these details is not within the scope of our study.
A sharp turning point in the development of Alba Longa and the Latin (Itil / Italian) League (Union) of tribes was the emergence of Romulus, who founded the city of Rome in 753 BC. Aeneas and his descendants were ethnic Germans, Haplogroup R1b. However, at the end of the VIII century BC there is an ethnic change of the elite of Alba Longa and Egypt. The pretender to the throne Alba Longa Numitor had daughter Rhea Silvia. His younger brother Amulius (aka Pharaoh Khefren) usurped power and gave ray to serve in the Temple of Vesta. She was legally required to remain a virgin. However, god of war Ares make love with her from which were born twins. According to our reconstruction of the history of the Olympic gods were ethnic Ugrians, Haplogroup N1 . Therefore, the children of Rhea became Ugrians, sons of Ares and grandchildren of Zeus. In the Volga region and Rome they were called Mars and Jupiter.
According to Roman legends, Rhea gave birth to two twins. However, in Egyptian Chronicles of the priestess of the Sun god Ra named Raddjedet  gave birth to triplets from the god. All the sons Raddjedet became the Pharaohs of Egypt. The eldest son of Pharaoh Userkaf is identified by us with Romulus . The Roman name of Rhea and the Egyptian name Raddjedet are isomorphic.
In 753 BC Romulus made the first furrow around the Palatine hill, founding the city of Rome. The two–headed hill of the Capitol fell into the border of the city. According to legend, the Palatine hill by the she–wolf nursed the infants Romulus and Remus, so there was a sacred cave of the she–wolf. We localize Ancient Rome near the Selitrennoe village on Akhtuba. Most of the city with hills lay on the continental part, and a small part – on the island [5, 6]. The island part was called Memphis. Later at the same place was the city Itil and Sarai Batu.
In the Bulgarian Chronicles also describes the history of the rescue she-wolf of the baby II volume, pp. 7–10 and p. 68 . Child called Genghis (the son of the Wolf), who led the kin Albir. The words Albir and Alba are isomorphic. After that the wolf became the main totem of the Bulgarians. The self–name of the people – Bulgarians comes from the Bulg (wolf) and Ar (head). In fact the Bulgarians are ancient Romans. The Bulgaria were Union of tribes – ethnic Ugric (Haplogroup N1), Germanic (Haplogroup R1b) and Indo–European (Haplogroup I1, I2).
To have survived is an amazing artifact is sculpture of the Lupa Capitolina (Capitoline she–wolf). The artifact dates back to the V century BC, recognizing it as subject of Etruscan culture. Recently has become popular idea, that she–wolf have produced only in XI century, that mistakenly. The figure of the wolf has strange copper (red) color. Is there such a subspecies of wolves? Yes, it is Caspian or Steppe wolf. He have differs from the forest wolf, and, especially, his Arctic colleague – roast, small scalp, color of wool and absence of hair on the face. Below us present photos of the sculpture and the Caspian wolf for comparison (look Figure No. 2). This wolf could not live in the Apennines. The history of Romulus and Remus could only happen in the southern Volga region and the Caspian region. Bulgarians call such wolf as hin (red wolf).
Figure No. 2. Capitoline she–wolf - steppe or Caspian wolf.
According to legend, Romulus after his death was deified and became known as Quirinus. Jupiter, Mars and Quirinus form the Triad of the main gods of Rome. Existing versions of the origin of the nickname Quirinus do not take into account the localization of Rome in the Volga region, so wrong. In fact, the name of the god comes from the name of Kur(i) or Buri – the Finno-Ugric and Bulgarian deity of the moon, hunting, military valor, victory and glory, II volume, p. 60 . Kuri (Quiri) took the form of a wolf or a leopard. In honor of him called the Bulgarians, as part of the ancient Roman people. So, Romulus–Kuri–Quirinus, the Capitoline she-wolf and the Bulgarians are closely related to each other. The main gods of the Bulgarians have the same origin as the gods of the Etruscans and Romans. This is god Tengri and Tinia, goddess Ashna (Ana) and Uni and other of deity.
The first wave of migration of the tribes of the Volga region and the Kuban, i.e. the participants of the Latin League, began in the VIII century BC. At the beginning the tribe of the Etruscans settled in the Black Sea steppes and on the coasts of the Azov and Black Seas. From there they sailed through the Bosporus to the Mediterranean, where they settled in Etruria on the Apennines. We believe that with the strengthening of Egyptian civilization in Africa and the Volga region and the alien beliefs of the Egyptian gods in the VII century BC migration intensified. At this time in Egypt were built giant pyramids in Giza – Cheops and Khefren. Migration of the Etruscans has led to the flourishing of the ancient civilization of the Volga in the Apennines. The connection of the Etruscans with the Volga region can be traced in the name of the goddess Turan (TuranMati, mother of Turan), the Romans is Venus. The Bulgarians called their state the Turan. The wife of Ascanius, aka the Pharaoh Iti and builder of Alba Longa, was the Turan. Etruscan language was branch of the ancient language of Russ, close to Sanskrit.
At the time of the establishment of Rome in 753 BC, the nature of the planet licked the wounds inflicted by Flood or Late Bronze Age collapse in the XIII century BC. The line of Seas and Oceans has changed, that led to the formation of fertile plains in the region lying between the Don and Volga. The plain was named Kuban in honor of the God Father Kubar (Cubar, Qubar). Bulgarians called God the Cube (God Sun) – Ar (Head). As result of geophysical processes in the Black Sea region has developed a unique natural phenomenon .
The essence of the phenomenon lies in the existence for 90% of the time of year stable North–East wind, which the Greeks called Boreas. Wind is constantly blowing in the direction of the Bosporus and changes their direction. The average speed exceeds 5.7 m/s or 20 km/h. This wind is traced in the form of a corridor, a width of more than 100 km from the Bosporus, expanding to the size of 200–300 km, up to the territory of the Kuban. Therefore, the first cities of the Bosporan Kingdom appeared in this wind corridor. Thus, we are dealing with a natural transport route, length of about 800 km in a straight line.
If you are on the coast of Kuban, then after harvesting you have a great opportunity, putting the sails on the ship, sail strictly on the Bosporus, not even driving it. Exactly two days later you will get to the Bosporus and the Golden Horn Bay in Byzantium late New Rome or Constantinople. It is convenient to move back in spring and summer on oars along the coast of Cappadocia, then on sails to the North, delivering goods to the North–East of the Black Sea and the money from the sale of grain, honey, hemp, flax, furs and other goods of the North: ore, gold, silver, copper, iron, wood, etc. Back in Ancient Rome were transported works of art, weapons and jewelry.
Thus, the new transport corridor of the Black Sea was first used by the Etruscans, who eventually began to transfer the place names of the Volga, Don and Caucasus to the Apennines. The shipping route from Rome to the West to the Mediterranean Sea became the basis of the military and economic expansion of the Republic and the Empire (look Figure No. 3).
We believe that the migration of the Etruscans to Italy was connected with the expansion of the Romans from the Volga to the Black Sea steppes, where the Etruscan metropolis prospered. Roman wars with the Etruscans took place in the VI–IV centuries BC and ended with the victory of Rome. Romans reached Italy only in III century BC, when Etruria came under the control of Rome at 267 BC.
The second gate of Rome was Ostia (Ostia Antica), built in the Delta of the Volga and Akhtuba. Ostia literally means Delta. According to legend, the town was laid out by the Ancus Marcius in the VII century BC in view of the availability of salt–works there. Still Ostia, Delta of Tiber and salt works are not found in Italy. However, in the Volga Delta there was such a city. Probably, Astrakhan was built there. Salt production in these areas was ordinary mine. Ostia served as a base of military and economic expansion of Rome to the East: Central Asia, Caucasus, Mesopotamia and India.
Figure No. 3. Expansion of Ancient Rome by years and directions.
Even during the reign of Romulus, the Romans carried out the first sortie to the West, attacking Cameria and making it their colony. Historians placed Cameria very close to Rome on the Apennines. In fact, it is not only city, but whole region called Cimmeria. This Northern of Black Sea and Azov are the basis of the future of the Bosporan Kingdom. Two hundred years after Romulus in 502 BC, the Romans again destroyed the main city of the region.
The reign of Kings and Pharaohs in Rome and Egypt ended with a revolt in the Volga region in 509 BC, when Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, aka Pharaoh Pepi I, together with family was expelled from Rome. The Republican period began. Lucius Tarquinius Superbus tried to storm the city, but was defeated. As a result, the rule of the Roman Kings and Pharaohs was limited to Upper Egypt in Africa, forming an isolated and original civilization. At the same time in Egypt lived the descendants of Pharaohs from the Romulus and the Kings of Rome are ethnic Ugrians (Haplogroup N1) and of the first Pharaoh of Egypt – Aeneas / Menes, who were ethnic Germans (Haplogroup R1b). This dualism of the elite gave rise to continuous struggle for power, which in history is described as the struggle of the Pharaohs with the priestly class. After 509 BC the toponyms of Lower Egypt on Akhtuba began to be transferred to the Nile Delta, causing confusion in the Chronicles.
The expulsion of the Pharaohs from Lower Egypt on the Volga led to general weakening of African Egypt. As a result the state on the Nile came under the control of First Persian Empire led by the Achaemenid dynasty. Founder Achaemenes and son Teispes was Cimmerian Kings and ethnic Germans, Haplogroup R1b. With the end of the VI century BC, Egypt has received the status of the main satrapy of Persia, while retaining self–government. Egypt paid an annual tribute of 700 talents of silver and 120,000 bushels of grain. The weakening of Egypt caused the fall of the influence of Rome. The rift between Rome and Upper Egypt provoked the rise to the top of the world power of First Persian Empire, which captured the richest regions of civilization of its time, having absorbed more than 50 million people into the Empire.
The elite of Ancient Rome in the Volga region consisted of descendants of Kings and Pharaohs. Not all of them accepted the status of patricians and senators in the Republic. Representatives of the German ethnic group were founded in Cimmeria the Bosporan Kingdom. The Cimmeria immortalized by Homer was vast area from Thrace through the steppes to the Caucasus, including the Crimea. In this historical period in Bulgarian annals German peoples are referred to II volume, p. 11  is Cimmerian, which were Association of four German tribes (Bulgarian named them Dout – four or Camirci) – ancestors of some German peoples (Goths, Cimbri, Teutons, etc.). In addition, according to II volume, p. 64  the name Cimmerian comes from the old Bulgarian nickname of the Hittites is Kumar – yellow or light head, and Teuton – from another Bulgarian nickname of the Hittites the Dout ion (Four tribes).
In 480 BC the Bosporan Kingdom emerged as result of the unification of cities on the Kerch and Taman Peninsula. Historians call them Greek, but in fact we are talking about the colonies of Rome on the Black Sea. The first King of the Bosporan Kingdom was Archaeanax. Then his dynasty in 438 BC was replaced by the Spartocid, the founder is the Spartocos I. Note that this dynasty ruled up to 109 BC. However everybody knew Roman Spartacus.
It is interesting to note that the name of the next ruler after Spartocos I is Seleucus. Seleucus is Roman name that will appear later as the founder of the Seleucid dynasty in Mesopotamia and the Middle East. We believe that the international language of communication at that time in the Roman possessions, Bosporus and colonial cities was Greek. The Latin language assumed this function only after the I century BC.
We well–known fact that on the territory of modern Rome is not found the mints, tools for the minting of money and the hoard of ancient coins . This is due to the fact that the Romans allegedly did not need money, so minting coins engaged mints scattered throughout the Empire. However, Rome always had the prerogative to issue gold coins. One of the main centers of emission of gold coins of Rome was the Bosporan Kingdom, p. 151 : On the Contrary, in the Bosporan Kingdom for a long time minted gold and copper and never – silver.
Minting money in the Kingdom had a long tradition – from the third quarter of the VI century BC was formed Apollonian monetary Union with the center in Bosporus. Traditional history does not explain why Rome was in Italy, and the minting of gold coins on the outskirts of the Empire. In fact the Bosporus from the time of the Republic was an ally of Rome and the gates to the West.
Following Bosporus, Iberia became the target of Roman expansion. Iberia is not Spain, but the Central and Western Caucasus. Therefore, it is a mistake to believe that Spain was conquered by Rome one of the first. The Romans finally captured the Pyrenees only together with the troops of Octavian Augustus in 17 BC.
The next powerful wave of military and economic expansion of Ancient Rome on the Volga was Central Asia, Mesopotamia and India. The beginning of the era of conquest of the East coincides with the Samnite Wars (343–341 BC, 326–304 BC and 298–290 BC). It is believed that the war arose because of the attempts of the Samnites to control the Campaign.
We believe that in fact the Samnite Wars took place over the lands and cities of the same Cimmeria – Kuban, North Caucasus and the Caspian Sea. The Samnites were tribe of Caraceni, Hirpini, Caudini, Pentri and Frentani. Sometimes Lucani also counted them. We identify the Samnites with the Sarmatians (Saka) tribes. Samnite names of the Bulgarian tribes of the Volga region, Kuban and Caucasus we can easily find in the Bulgarian Chronicles . At the same time, traditional history describes the period of the Samnite Wars in the North Caucasus as the struggle of the Sarmatians with the Scythians.
In the era of the Samnite Wars, defeated Roman soldiers were subjected to the humiliating rite of the nomads – the passage under the yoke. Two Roman spears were stuck into the ground, and third spear was tied between them. The soldiers were obliged to bend down low and go through this building. The word yoke is pre–Indo–European origin and originated in the Volga region. In 321 BC the Romans were defeated by the Samnite army ruled by Gaius Pontius, who was considered a Thracian and came from Pontus (the Black Sea coast in modern Turkey) in the "mountainous conditions". It is hard to imagine what Pontius did on the Apennines. How could he consult his father for decisions? But we can easily see Gaius Pontius in the Black Sea steppes and of the Caucasus Mountains. The third war ended with the dissolution of the Samnite Confederation and establishment of peaceful relations with Rome.
The next stage of the expansion of Ancient Rome was a long military campaign to establish control over Persia: Satrapy of Anatolia, Middle East, India and Egypt. This military expedition is known as the campaign of Alexander the Great. We believe that the military actions in the Caspian region and the Caucasus were part of the Second Samnite War. The war with Persia was not caused by the ambitions of the young Alexander the Great, but by the general discontent of the Roman elite with the rise of Persia and the economic losses from trade with the East.
According to our research , the fact of the existence of Alexander the Great in the IV century BC is highly questionable. We believe that there is an effect of imposing the real personality of the Emperor Alexander Macedonian of the X century on the virtual image of the generalized Macedonian commander of the Persian campaigns of the tribal leaders of Rome. The name Alexander in the East is household name and means the King given by God. From the Empire of Alexander there were no traces – descendants, annals of government, coins with his image, as well as Persian and Egyptian Chronicles, where he was recognized as the King of Kings or Pharaoh in Egypt.
In fact the conquest of Alexander the Great IV century BC is the expansion of the Republican Union of tribal leaders of Ancient Rome with the support of the cities–colonies of the Mediterranean in Asia, Africa and Greece. The main blow of the Union was directed from the North from the Volga and the Caspian Sea to the South – to Persia. A small part of the conquerors troops moved from Ancient Greece along the Mediterranean Sea with the joint support of the fleets of Greece and Rome. The main troops of the Union were Romans, as well as the generals themselves. However, all the conquerors communicated in the international language of Rome and its colonies in those days – Greek.
Consider the list of the Diadochi (successors) or mythical generals of Alexander the Great: Perdiccas, Antigonus I Monophthalmus and his son Demetrius I, Antipater, his son Cassander, Seleucus, Lisimachus, Eumenes, Ptolemy I Soter, Craterus, Peiphon and Polypercphon. Perdiccas died earlier in 321 BC until it had completed the processes of formation of the latter–day Empires. Antipater died of old age in 319 BC. Peiphon got the Medes in Western Iran executed 314 BC. Leader Polysperchon died of old age in 303 BC.
The leading naval commander of the conquerors was Nearchus – he sailed through Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf. He went to management of Lycia and Pamphylia (in the South of modern Turkey), which later became Roman province. Data on the Republican Roman tribal leaders will be summarized in the Table No. 2.
In the IV century BC, the main combat construction of infantry in Rome and Greece was the phalanx. The Roman legions began to use the probe only in 280–275 BC, Respectively, for the Asian peoples the Romans were members of the Hellenistic world, as military controls and weapons, and language.
According to the official version of the story, created in XIX century, Alexander the Great, before going to Asia, conquered Greece. These victories are described by Roman historians 300–500 years after the original events, which raise doubts about the reliability of these works. Not credible description of the battles given by the Macedonians to the Persians, from cities of Anatolia to Egypt. In the swords battle can’t be the loss of the parties 1 Macedonian by 100 or 1000 Persians.
We believe that the first battle of the Asian campaign of the tribal leaders of Rome with the Persians took place on 1 October, 331 BC (the date is determined according to the astronomical diary) at Gaugamela (Arbela in Iraqi Kurdistan). Roman troops came there not from the West, but from the North – from the Volga region. According to the descriptions of Roman historians participated in the battle by Alexander the 40 thousand soldiers and 7 thousand horsemen. From the Persian side there were 400 thousand soldiers and 100 thousand horsemen according by Justinus, but according by Curtius – 200 thousand infantry and 45 thousand horsemen, as well as 200 chariots and 15 elephants. The loss of the parties was – Macedonians from 200 horsemen and 1000 infantry, the Persians – 30 thousand or 40 thousand dead. The remaining tens of thousands of Persians surrendered to skilled "Macedonians".
In fact, there was bloody battle between the armies of tribal leaders of Rome and the Persians. Tens of thousands of soldiers died on both sides. The conquerors won the victory, as result of which the Persian power ceased to exist. The leaders of Rome entered Babylon at the end of 331 BC. Then followed is long campaign in Central Asia and India. In these campaigns the Roman leaders helped nomadic tribes of the Volga region and Siberia. Since then, in Central Asia there was the Eastern Bulgaria – part of the Bulgaria Power, originating in the Volga region. In the Indian campaign, the conquerors suffered significant losses, concluded peace treaties with local rulers and subordinated them to Ancient Rome. From India the Romans overtook several hundred fighting elephants, who took further part in all the wars of Ancient Rome. In Rome in the Volga region there were coins with images of elephants, harnessed to chariots and without them. In 323 BC the conquerors returned to Babylon. By 322 BC the tribal leaders of Rome decided to divide the captured Lands and States between the participants of the conquest.
In 322 BC Ptolemy captured Egypt with his troops. In fact, the name Ptolemy is a nickname. The real name of the King has not yet been established. In Egypt it was called the Pharaoh Intef II (323–275 BC), the Head of the transitional period before the establishment of the Middle Kingdom. We believe that Ptolemy was ethnic Ugric (Haplogroup N1) and direct descendant of the Pharaohs of Egypt who ruled in Lower Egypt on the Volga until 509 BC.
Part of the army of tribal leaders of Rome on 324–323 BC went to the West from Mesopotamia to capture Anatolia and the Balkans. They had to fight with the coastal cities of Greece in Anatolia. The phantoms of these battles formed the basis of the first victories of Alexander the Great on the way from Macedonia to Asia. As result of the campaign in the West by the chieftains under the leadership of Antipater, Craterus and Leonnatus conquered Greece, Thrace and Macedonia. In history, these events are described as the Lamian war, in which Athens and the Greek cities were defeated. Leonnatus died during the war. The Craterus was also killed in battle on 321 BC. All power went to Antipater. Note that the Macedonians had a large fleet of 240 ships, as well as the Athenians. Land war was accompanied by fighting at Sea. Greece and Macedonia were finally conquered on 321 BC. By this time start the first war of the Diadochi – the tribal leaders of Rome. Details of events are described by us in .
The richest territory, conquered by the tribal Union of leaders of Rome, went to Seleucus and his descendants. In 323 BC Seleucus became King of Babylon and the surrounding lands. However, were expelled by Antigonos and returned to power only in 312 BC, Seleucus rules until his death in battle in 281 BC. After him power in Seleucid Empire went to son Antiochus I Soter. The Seleucids controlled large country until 64 BC, when the Imperial Rome of newly conquered power.
We believe that the biography of Seleucus became the basis of the legend of Alexander the Great. Seleucus was born according to Eusebius of Caesarea  in 356 BC as Alexander. Seleucus founded several new cities in his Kingdom. We know gold coin of Seleucus with the image of the favorite horse of the King is Bucephalus. It turns out that Bucephalus is not the horse of Alexander the Great. However, modern historians claim that Seleucus so wanted to resemble Alexander that minted a coin with a horse thereof. In addition, Seleucus deified himself, claiming that he was the son of Apollo, who gave his mother ring with the image of the anchor. Interestingly, at birth Seleucus was found birthmark in the form of an anchor. The children and grandchildren of the King had the same birthmark. Seleucus was married to the Sogdia Princess Apama, who gave birth to the heir of the Empire. We believe that the ancestors of Seleucus came from Bosporus and he was an ethnic Ugric, Haplogroup N1, if he considered himself as descendant of Apollo.
A comparison of the names and nicknames of Seleucid and Ptolemaic rulers in Asia and Africa, as well as the years of their rule, reveals exact coincidences that are difficult to recognize as accidental. Information about the rulers will be summarized in the Tables No. 3 and 4. Perhaps part of the Kings of the Seleucid Empire was recognized as Pharaohs of Egypt – Ptolemaic and vice versa. The analysis of these data requires special research, which should be carried out outside the scope of this work.
Thus, by the beginning of the III century BC the Republican Rome and its tribal leaders formed the Pro–Roman States in the regions – the Eastern Kingdom of the Seleucid, African Ptolemaic Egypt, Kingdoms of Anatolia, Thrace, Macedonia and Greece. Friendly territories of Rome remained Bosporus, Kingdom of Pontus and Iberia (Caucasus). In 306 BC Rome concluded a peace Treaty with Carthage, making Rome accessible to the Eastern Mediterranean.
The next stage of the expansion of Ancient Rome was the Apennines. In 280 BC Roman troops landed near Tarentum (Taranto). They were opposed by the allied army of Pyrrhus, consisting of troops of Italics, Greece and Epirus. The Battle of Heraclea was won by the Italics and Greeks. The Romans were forced to retreat. In 279 BC again there was battle between the Romans and the allied forces of Pyrrhus in Asculum (it is 200 km North of Heraclea). The Romans lost to Pyrrhus again. Finally in 275 BC in Beneventum (it is 100 km to the West from Asculum) there was a final battle in the war to capture the Peninsula of the Apennines. As a result, Pyrrhus had to flee to Epirus in the Balkans. The Romans by force of arms annexed to his zone of influence in almost all of Italy.
Traditional history claims that Roman troops were based in Rome on the Tiber. Only people, who blindly love Ancient Rome, admit the idea that the war may occur first in the South, then in the North–East, and at the end in the North–West of Heraclea. Say, the Romans went freely on the territory of the enemy, and the first time quietly crossed all enemy territory, and at the end of the war fought on the outskirts of Rome. Just Ancient Rome on the Apennines was not then it was located in the Volga region. Roman troops on ships arrived in the South of Italy and from there fought with the enemy – the aborigines of Italy and allied Greeks.
By 267 BC the Romans established full control over Italy. The ships of Rome began to appear on the Pyrenees and the Cote d'azur. The expansion of Republican Rome in the Mediterranean caused a conflict with Carthage. The First Punic War began in 264–241 BC. In 229–228 BC the Romans began a war with the Illyrians to capture the Northern Balkans. In 227 BC a new Roman province was formed – Sicily and Corsica. In 218–201 BC was the Second Punic War. Carthage's troops were led by Hannibal. He began cleaning the coast of Spain and Gaul from the Romans. His army moved through the Pyrenees and the Alps to Italy. Hannibal defeated the army of Publius Scipio on the banks of the Ticino (the loss of 2,300 people) and Tiberius Sempronius on the shores of Trebia (loss of 20,000 people). In 217 BC at the battle of Lake Trasimeno he destroyed the army of Gaius Flaminius (loss of 21,000 people) and went to the South–East, ravaging the southern region of Italy. Contrary to logic Hannibal didn't attack Rome, which allegedly was on the Tiber just 180 kilometers from Lake Trasimeno. Then Hannibal wintered near Gerania and descended into Apulia, where in 216 BC gave Battle of Cannae to the Romans, who suffered a crushing defeat – from 50,000 to 70,000 killed. Hannibal spent the next winter in Capua. In two years Carthaginians destroyed from 73 to 93 thousand Romans, it was a third of the Roman population. To gather new army to repel Hannibal was not possible, but the conqueror did not attack the Eternal City, which is not surprising – Rome was in the Volga region.
In 168 BC the reign of the Antigonid dynasty, coming from the King of Antigonus is member of the Union of tribal leaders, was interrupted.
In 149–146 BC there was a Third Punic War, which ended in the defeat and destruction of Carthage. In parallel to these events, Greece came under the full influence of Rome, becoming a province of the Republic.
In 113–101 BC there were border wars with the German tribes in the North of the Balkans and Italy. In 73–71 BC was marked by the uprising of Spartacus. We identify the leader of the "slaves" Spartacus with a very influential member of the Royal family of Spartocid (Bosporan Kingdom), extending from the first King Spartocos. Consequently the uprising of Spartacus could happen on the territory of Pontus and the Black Sea coast of the North Caucasus (Iberia). The events of the slave revolt in "Italy" are identical with the revolt of the slaves under the leader Saumakos against the Bosporus in 109–107 BC. We believe that Roman Spartacus and Saumakos from Bosporus is one historical person. The dates of the uprisings need to be clarified. Therefore, the revolt of the "Roman slaves" was caused by the struggle of various branches of the dynasty of the Spartocid for power.
In 63–64 BC there was a final destruction of the Seleucid Empire and the transition of the country under the control of Rome. A few decades later the Romans reached Upper Egypt. In the 30th BC they took away the power of the Ptolemaic dynasty. According to our reconstruction, the last Queen of Egypt of the Middle Kingdom was Nefrusebek (aka Cleopatra Selene II), who ruled in 18–14 BC. Change of era the ancient world to a new era took place under the banner of the transformation of Rome from Republic to Empire. The absorption by Rome of the lands of the descendants of the tribal leaders of Rome in Asia, India, Africa and the Balkans was easy, since these territories since their foundation were the actual colonies of Ancient Rome.
Please note that in the public consciousness strengthened the stereotype that Spain, France, Britain and the Balkans, the Romans captured in the first step. In fact the Roman expansion into Western Europe began only in I century BC, and was successful only in I century. However, even in the IV century continued Roman military expeditions to Britain. In the 306 in the expedition at the Albion died the Emperor Constantius Chlorus. Accordingly, the rim in the first place, seized the Kuban and the Caucasus, Greece and Macedonia, and then Italy, Asia Minor, the Seleucid Empire and Egypt in Africa, and only then engaged in the development of the Balkans, Central and Western Europe.
Became I century. Ancient Rome from the Volga region could not effectively lead the expansion to the Mediterranean and Western Europe. Logistical and economic problems of Empire management required the transfer of the capital to Europe. We put forward the hypothesis that the author of the transfer of Rome to Italy was the Emperor Nero. We believe that Nero was Ugric origin (Haplogroup N1). The Emperor had rare name meaning Ugric toponym Nero aka lake, river. The ancient Lake Nero is located near Moscow, on its shore lays the city of Rostov the Great.
July 19, 64 in Ancient Rome was the largest fire in the history of the city. From the 14 districts are survived only 4. According to legend, the city was set on fire by Nero himself, but this fact is not proved. It turned out that Ancient Rome was a product of wooden architecture. But in the Mediterranean did not build houses from wood, as it was expensive and short–lived. After the fire, the Emperor Nero developed a plan for the construction of the capital. Town–planning requirements were tightened – houses had to be from a stone, the law established the minimum distances between houses and width of streets.
In fact, the fire in the capital of the Volga region provoked moving of the city to Europe. For the construction of the new capital, a one–time tax was collected from the entire Empire . Nero chose the location for the erection of new Rome the Etruscan city Veii, located on the river Cremera in Italy. In the distant past, it was believed that Veii with a population of 32 thousand people was the largest city in Europe . The capital of the Etruscans has been in decline since its capture by the Romans in 396 BC, but the city was partially restored by Emperor Augustus. Perhaps the city of Veii was originally on the Don rivers was destroyed and rebuilt in Italy by Etruscan refugees on the river Cremera after 396 BC.
Traditional history is modestly silent, as in the VI century BC in 16 km from Rome on the Tiber, where they lived 30–80 thousand people, could be Etruscan city Veii on the stream Cremera (supposedly tributary of Tiber), with population of 32 thousand people. Given the size of the cities and suburbs, the journey between them would take couple of hours on walk or an hour by horse. The localization of Veii on mountain stream near Rome is simply ridiculous (where tens of thousands residents took water, and human waste flowed into the Rome on the Tiber?).
Over time, on the outskirts of the capital of the Etruscans migrated place names of Ancient Rome from the Volga region. The Etruscan river Cremera was renamed to the Tiber, and small stream began to be called Cremera. The first Roman building in this city was the Domus Aurea (Golden house of Nero), the construction of which stopped in 68 after the death of the Emperor. On a plot of land reserved for the Palace of the Emperor, began to build public buildings.
The real builder of Rome in Europe was Emperor Titus Vespasianus Flavius. According to our reconstruction of history , Flavius was the King of Finno–Ugric and Bulgarian as Tash Bash . He decided to rebuild the center of Rome and use the empty land of the Domus Aurea. They were built Colosseum or Flavius Amphitheater in 72–80, which was covered with earth pond, and then the Arch of Titus in 81. The Colosseum could accommodate 50 thousand spectators, but for huge city what was supposed to be Rome a little. Just in the city on the Tiber lived too few residents. Then the Baths of Trajan in 104–109, the Baths of Diocletian in 298–305 and the Basilica of Maxentius in 308–312 were built. In new Rome on Italy also built the Temple of Vespasian in 79, the Palace of Augustus about 100, the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina in 141, the Arch of Septimius Severus in 205, the Camp Amphitheater in 220th, etc.
With such extensive construction Rome on the Tiber, the Capitol ancient temples and temples as well as public buildings – parts of the Roman Forum, such as the Comitium and the Curia – were not restored. Part of the buildings, arches and houses of Rome (Veii) on the Tiber dated from I–IV centuries. Then was a period of new construction in the XIII–XVIII centuries, when the Vatican decided to revive the Imperial grandeur of Rome. However, Petrarch in the XIV century wrote that almost half of the buildings that existed in the past are missing. Set the real date of construction of individual structures of Italian Rome can only be a careful study thereof.
Rome in Italy since its inception could not become true capital of the Empire, as it was far from transport routes and migration directions. We believe that the city was in deplorable state. The number of people was minimal – up to 20 thousand persons. For this reason, it does not constitute a lucrative target for the enemy. The most developed cities of Italy, such as Milan and Ravenna, were in the North of the country and were more ancient and rich than Rome (Veii) in the Tiber.
Until the first quarter of the IV century, the expansion of the Romans was caused by the greatness and wealth of the Eternal City, which managed to recover after the fire on 64. But in 324 the Rome on Akhtuba fell under the blows of the armies of Pharaoh Thutmose III, captured before that, the entire Middle East and Persia . At this time, the main military forces of the Empire were in the West and could not physically return to the Volga region to defend the capital city. For this reason, Constantine the Great founded a New Rome on the Bosporus on May 11, 330 rebuilt the ancient Byzantium in 324–330 and declared the city the new capital of the Roman Empire, which moved to the West – the Bosporus.
Not all the Roman elite accepted the reforms of Constantine the Great. So, in Western Europe in late IV century was proclaimed Western Roman Empire with capital city Mediolan (Milan), and then Ravenna.
At the time of the foundation of New Rome on the Bosporus in 330, Ulak Urum (Rome) in the Volga region was in decline. The hardships were caused by the occupation of the city and Akhtuba by the Egyptian Pharaoh Thutmose III. Under the oppression of the invaders, the Romans (residents of the Volga region and the Caucasus) were forced to flee the city in 378. According to the Bulgarian Chronicles  the Israelis also called themselves the Cubanites. The Bible describes this event as the Exodus of the Israelites under the supervision of the Leader Moses. But Moses was not a Jew, and he are the Khagan of the Bulgarians and the Romans from the kin of Russ (ethnic Ugric, Haplogroup N1) named Arbat. 19 January, 379 Arbat for organizing the successful crossing of the refugees in the wagons (carts) across the ice of the Black Sea from the Kuban to the Crimea (the Biblical Sinai Peninsula) has received Roman military rank Dux Moesiea (Leader Moses). So Moses is not a name, but the name of the province of Moesia. Arbat upon reaching Constantinople by refugees was declared Emperor of the Roman Empire. The Roman name of the Ugric King is Theodosius the Great Flavius. In his honor was also named araba (carts), Arabat spit and Feodosia in the Crimea.
In the European Chronicles the Exodus of 600 thousand Romans refugees from the Volga region and the North Caucasus under the direction of the Arbat–Moses about 380th got the name the Hun invasion. It was the largest migration of peoples since the beginning of the expansion of Rome to the West. But for the Romans of Western Europe refugees from the East of Ancient Rome were a threat, as they were competitors in the places of settlement thereof. Therefore, in historiography for them was invented offensive, barbaric name – Huns.
The second and final wave of resettlement of the Romans–Israelis from the Volga region and the Caucasus to Europe was the Hun invasion under the leadership of Khagan Attila in 440–450. In the Bible it’s described as continuation of the Exodus of the Israelites under the leadership of Joshua, who is identified by us with Attila , ethnic Ugric of the kin Russ (Great).
According to our reconstruction – Attila, Aetius Flavius and the Emperor Theodosius II Flavius is one historical person . Ugric nickname Attila was Aetcel, III volume, p. 91 , coinciding with the Roman name. It is said that Aetius in his youth allegedly was a hostage of the Huns , but later continued to maintain friendly relations with them – at least until the end of 430th. It’s believed that the Huns who served Aetius were a kind of personal guard — bucellarii . These facts are not surprising, because the Huns are Eastern Romans from the Volga region. The personal Secretary of Attila was Roman the Orestes of Pannonia, and the head of the guard – Roman the Edikon. In addition, most of the army, including under the leadership of Attila, consisted of Germans.
For information, Ammianus Marcellinus gave the Huns features of wild Northern peoples . The Huns involved in their ranks the peoples of Siberia and Central Asia, including Indo–Iranian and Finno–Ugric origin. The commanders of the military units from Attila were the Germans the Ardaric is the leader of the Gepids and Valamir is leader of the Ostrogoths .
The infantry of the Huns consisted of German soldiers and archers. According to Roman historians, the infantry was equipped and organized following the example of the Roman legions. If we discard the hostility to the Huns from the defeated Europeans, we can simply say that the foot compounds of the Huns are the Roman legions that came with the last waves of migration of the peoples of the Volga and Caucasus in the 380th and 440–450th.
In the Hun army there was a very well–organized engineering service. In it consisted of a special unit serving at the siege enemy fortifications, catapults, whose personnel were recruited from the Romans . The engineering service was also equipped with mobile pontoons and special boats, which laid the flooring of the boards used for the rapid passage of troops through the swamps and rivers.
The friendship of the Huns and Romans was mutual. Roman historiography is filled with information about the use of military units of the Huns by Western and Eastern Roman Emperors in various wars .
Their bows the Huns kept in campaigns and daily life in special birch bark cases, called is gorytos (burn) . Quivers for bows were also made of birch bark. Shafts of arrows were made from typha (reed). Where does birch bark come from in the steppes and deserts? Undoubtedly, birch bark cases were made in North of Volga region, where birch groves grew. The name gorytos has Finno–Ugric origin. Each of the Huns horsemen had at his disposal several bows and quivers in reserve. The army of the Huns numbered tens of thousands of horsemen, so they needed several hundred thousand gorytos and quivers, as well as millions of arrows.
The expansion of Rome from the Volga region to the West ended in the middle of the V century with the death of Attila – Aetius in 454. At the same time, Egypt prospered in the Volga region on Akhtuba , associated with the activities of Pharaoh Tutankhamen (445–455), and then with the coming to power of the Pharaohs Horemheb (459–486) and Ramses I (486–488). Rome–Ulak Urum in the Volga region ceased to exist, yielding to the triumph of Memphis, the Egyptian neighbor of Rome on the Island of Akhtuba.
In 408–410 the Rome–Veii in Italy was attacked by the Visigoths under the leadership of King Alaric. As a result, the city was looted and partially destroyed. In 455 the King Genseric of the Vandals again attacked Rome –Veii. After these events, the city on the Tiber stayed in ruins.
The last Emperor of Ancient Rome was Flavius Romulus Augustus, who formally ruled in 475–476. He died in the Western Roman Empire in Naples in 507. Later, after the decline of Ancient Rome – Memphis–Ulak Urum, in their place there was the city Itil, which later became the capital of the Khazar Khaganate.
Now consider the names of the tribes and peoples of Alba Longa and Ancient Rome, their ethnic composition and the population of Rome in different eras. It is considered, that originally in Italy lived seven italic tribes which then have got mixed up and have disappeared, here their list in Latin:
Sabini – Paeligni (Peligni) – Marsi – Marrucini – Sanniti – Osci – Lucani.
In addition to them, there were more than 30 nations, the list of which is not accurate, as the various authors of the past and present are constantly making confusion in this matter. We list the largest Italian peoples: Etrusci – Latini – Equi (Aequi) – Hernici – Volsci – Aurunces – Venedi – Vestini – Samnium (Samniti) – Umbrini (look Figure No. 4).
Figure No. 4. Settlement of the peoples of the Itil - the Italic Union on the Volga.
Under statements of official historians all of these tribes have either disappeared or turned into Romans. The ethnic composition of these peoples is completely unknown. From the Italian tribes only the Etruscans left a huge and diverse cultural heritage, as well as countless artifacts that are still found during excavations. We have already said that the Etruscans come from the Black Sea steppes, or rather the area lying between the Don and the Volga. Ethnically, the Etruscans are probably the ancient Bulgarians, consisting of Ugric and small part of Germans, N1 and R1b Haplogroups. Etruscan language is very close to language of Russ and Sanskrit.
In the Bulgarian Chronicles  say, that the Power (State) of Idel or Itil is the Union of seven tribes of the Volga region. Title Itil goes back to the name of the Pharaoh Iti, aka the King Ascanius . So the Italics are identical to Itilics. The toponym Italy is derived from Itil. The names of the peoples of Itil usually go back to the name of the most prominent leaders. For example, Ulat aka meadow gave a nickname the tribe Lucani or Lugani, III volume, p. 81 . Also there were names of Sarmatians, Scythians, Saks, Alans and Huns. The name Troy comes from the Bulgarian word Atryach. Yana Itil (Idel) means New Itil or Anatolia. Bulgarian the Albirs is the Kings of Alba Longa, and Altynians (golden) is Latini. The inhabitants of Alba Longa are Altyn–bashci (Golden, White).
The Latini (Haplogroup R1b) consisted of ancient Teutonic (Germanic) tribes. Bulgarians called them Camirci – it was the Goths, Cimbri, Teutons and Wends. Over time, the Latini took to wife local women of the tribe of the Sabines – Sabini, probably the ancestors of the Eastern Europeans, little Ugric and the Vikings (ethnic groups Haplogroup N1, I1, I2). Around the Volga region there were numerous tribes of Nomads. Leaders and Kings of Nomads the Latini called Horsemen – Equites, and nomadic peoples – Equis (Aequi). Equites were the ancestors of ethnic Turks (Haplogroup R1b) and Finno–Ugric (Haplogroup N1). From the West, the neighbors of the Latini were the Etruscans, who created in the Black Sea the Kingdom of Bosporan, sometimes part of the Italic and Latin League. In the South and East of the Latini were Askali (Haplogroup N1, ethnic Finno–Ugric), who came from Siberia. The Latini called them Osci. In the North and North–West of the Latini were Finno–Ugric tribes (Haplogroup N1). It was the peoples Merya, Muroma, Meshchera, Mari, Mordvinians, Ves, Perm, Chud, Erzya, Moksha, Samoyeds, Wolves (Bulgarians), and Udmurts. All of them were united in the Itilian tribes, which had extensive ties with the Caucasus, which after the Flood mixed up the remains of tribes and clans that survived the Flood cataclysm or the Late Bronze Age collapse.
Let's make the Table No. 5 names and ethnicity, including Haplogroups, Italic (Itilic), Latin, Bulgarian and Eastern European tribes and peoples, as well as their places of modern settlement.
After the migration of the Romans to Europe, Vulgar Latin became a means of international communication. Goths, Germans, Teutons, Franks, Celts and Wends until the XVIII century spoke and wrote in Latin. Historians explain this fact by the fact that they did not have their own "native" language and writing.
Consider the dynamics of population growth and migration processes of Ancient Rome in the regions of location since the creation of the city. To build a chart (look Figure No. 5) we will use census data from Ancient Rome  and other known information. From 753 BC the population of Rome on Akhtuba grew progressively until 218 BC, when the Second Punic War began. Then in Rome lived about 270 thousand people. But after the defeat of several Roman armies by Hannibal, in 209 BC in the city there were 137 thousand people. The development and expansion of the Roman Empire led to the fact that at the turn of the change of eras in the Eternal city lived more than 1.5 million people. We believe that the houses of the capital of the Empire were built from the Northern forest of the Volga region. In 64 Rome was burned to the ground because of the crowding of buildings and a huge number of inhabitants.
After the fire began the restoration of the capital, and at the same time launched a project to revive Rome on the banks of Tiber in Italy. The place for construction of Italian Rome, as we wrote, was chosen Etruscan city the Veii, which was partially resurrected by Emperor Augustus.
In the first century in Rome on the Volga population was around 1.6 million people, and in the Rome–Veii was only a couple of tens of thousands of citizens. The Volga capital of the Empire began to decline with the strengthening of the expansion of the Romans in Europe. Finally in 324 the city was captured by the Egyptian troops of Thutmose III . These events led to the formation of the first mass wave of migration of the Romans – Israelis to New Rome, the Balkans and Europe. The Exodus of the inhabitants of Rome in 378–379 was headed by Khagan Arbat, aka the Leader Moses (Dux Moesiae), who became Emperor Theodosius the Great [5,6]. Then the Lower Volga region left more than 600 thousand refugees who took with them household utensils, works of art, religious relics and jewelry.
As a result, by the beginning of the V century in Rome on Akhtuba left to live about 1 million people. The second wave of migration of the Romans–Israelis in 440–450 was headed by Khagan Attila, aka Flavius Aetius, aka the Byzantine Emperor Theodosius II [5, 6]. This time, about 1 million people left the Volga region and the North Caucasus. The events of the Exodus of the Romans – Israelis were reflected in the Old Testament, and historiography called them the Great migration of peoples (Migration period). In the city on the Volga to 476 remained 100 thousand people. In Rome–Veii in Italy the number of inhabitants has not increased, but the population has increased in New Rome on the Bosporus, which occupied a strategic position between the autochthonous regions of Rome in the Volga region and the Mediterranean Sea with Europe.
From VI–VII centuries the Ancient Rome of the Volga region became known as the local people – Itil, as almost all Latin and German peoples left the region. The Volga area became the center of the renewed Ugric–Turkic civilization. In the 650th the Itil was one of the main cities of Great Bulgaria or Great Israel, whose capital was Phanagoria. Great Khagan Kubrat has created the huge religious monotheistic State. Kubrat is identified by us as the Emperor Heraclius Augustus Flavius and the Biblical King David . Then the children of Kubrat ruled the constituent parts of Great Bulgaria. On the Volga–Akhtuba in Itil began to live about 600 thousand people. Itil as in ancient times Rome was a city of wooden buildings with an impregnable fortress wall. Soon on the territory of Ancient Rome and its surroundings was formed Khazar Khaganate, and in 740 the elite of the Khaganate declared Judaism the state religion. About 1000 in Itil lived 700 thousand inhabitants and it was one of the largest cities in the world.
Itil gradually fell into disrepair, until in the XIII century it became one of the capitals of the Mongol Empire, and then of the Golden Horde called the Sarai Batu (the Palace of Batu). Preserved blocks of ruins of Ancient Rome and Itil were repeatedly used for new construction. By the end of the XV century in the city lived no more than 50 thousand inhabitants. After the capture of the Astrakhan Khanate by Ivan Terrible troops in the 1560th, Sarai Batu was empty as Russian town planners used the stones of the fortress walls and buildings for the construction of the Astrakhan Kremlin.
By 1600 the history of Ancient Rome, Ulak Urum, Memphis, Itil and Sarai Batu was completed. Currently, the ruins of the ancient city went deep into the ground, consisting of soft sedimentary rocks of the Volga and Akhtuba. On the site of the largest city of Earth civilization is now the Seliternnoe village. The metropolis existed for 2300 years, leaving its significant mark on the culture and history, as well as in the Chronicles of Christianity, Judaism and Islam.
Rome–Veii in Italy in the XIII–XV centuries received a new impetus to the development caused by the construction of the Vatican and the heyday of Italian civilization. The population of Rome has since increased from 50,000 to 2.6 million in our time.
Figure No. 5. Number of population of Ancient Rome, Veii, Itil, Sarai Batu and Rome by years.
Conclusions of our research: The history of Ancient Rome includes several layers of events, spaced in time and space, some of which occurred simultaneously in different regions. We localize Ancient Rome in the Volga region on Akhtuba for the period from 753 BC to 64, when the city was destroyed by fire. After the disaster, the metropolis gradually began to decline and ceased to exist by 476. On 64 began construction of new Rome on the site of the Etruscan city Veii. Construction continued in the I–IV centuries and XIII–XVIII centuries. After 64 the Chronicles of Ancient Rome were adapted to the localization of the city in Italy. Toponyms of the Volga region, Kuban and Caucasus moved to Europe. In 378–450 Ancient Rome and its surroundings left more than 1 million refugees who went to Europe. The movement of the Romans and allied tribes was called the part of Migration Period and the Hun invasion. Later on the place of Ancient Rome on Akhtuba prospered the cities Itil and Sarai Batu. Currently the foundations and artifacts of the Eternal city are hidden by sedimentary rocks of the Volga and Akhtuba near the Selitrennoe village.
Pr. Dr. Valeriy Viktorovich Kubarev.
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