|Russian Revolution's Forum|
Modernization of Russia
Holy Russia - Third Rome
The new subject of international law, the State Holy Russia - Third Rome, 21.09.2013.
Nova Church of Holy Russia
Orthodoxy and Christianity require reforming and release of heresy and obscurantism. 21.09.2011.
Synchronization of historical and religious Chronicles New!!!
The author correctly synchronizes historical and religious Chronicles of the Ancient World based on a short chronology and linking events to unique celestial phenomena reflected in the annals and Scriptures. The author believes that discrepancies in dates, geographical localities and ethnic origin of historical and religious figures are due to erroneous traditional chronology and historical geography, as well as the deliberate adaptation of phenomena and events to an established paradigm. 20.04–25.05.2020.
Astronomical dating of Biblical events New!!!
The author's reconstruction of the history and chronology of religions is fully verified by identifying 15 celestial phenomena described in the Chronicles, including 11 Solar Eclipses, 3 Zodiacs and 1 Supernova. A chronological shift of 1780 years in the history of Ancient Egypt has been confirmed for 6 phenomena, including 3 Solar Eclipses and 3 Zodiacs, including the Eclipse of Pharaoh Takelot on August 8, 891. Astronomically confirmed the date of the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ as March 18, 1010, and the date of death of Ibrahim – the son of the Prophet Muhammad as February 7, 1152 (28 Shawwal 546 AH). 20.02–31.03.2020.
Origin of the gens Rurik New!!!
After the break of ties between the metropolis and the Russian principalities, the annals of Byzantium were cleared of the mention of "foreigners" in the management of the Empire, and the Chronicles of Russia did not have time to properly reflect the role of Rurik in world history. A study of the sources of Ancient Rome, New Rome, Russia, Arab countries, Danube and Volga Bulgaria allowed the author to identify the Russ gens and Bulgarian Khagans with the Flavian dynasty, as well as to identify Rurik, his descendants and relatives from the Macedonian dynasty (IX–XI century) and dynasty of Lecapenus (X century). The last Russian Emperor of New Rome been Yaroslav the Wise, throne name Constantine Monomachos. 11.09–21.10.2019.
Chronology of monotheistic religions New!!!
The author identified the Patriarchs of monotheism with well-known figures of human history. He proved that the oldest religion of monotheism is Christianity, which had a theoretical character in the I Millennium (Old Testament Christianity) and a practical embodiment at the beginning of the II Millennium (New Testament Christianity). Islam and Judaism emerged only in the early VII century and became radical branches of Christianity. Based on the study of solar eclipses, the author has determined the date and place of the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ (March 18, 1010 in Constantinople), the year of the death of the Prophet Muhammad (1152) and the period creation of the Quran (1130–1152). 01–27.08.2019.
Localization of Ancient Rome New!!!
The history of Ancient Rome is well studied, but hides a lot of inconsistencies and contradictions relating to the period of formation of the city and the expansion of the Romans into the world. We believe that the problems are caused by ignorance of the true localization of Ancient Rome in the Volga region on Akhtuba until the Fire on 64 and move city to location of Veii in Italy. The article also considers the aspects of ethnic origin of the peoples of the Latin League, Ancient Rome and Europe. The vector of expansion of Ancient Rome from the Volga region to the Europe coinciding with the migration flows of the Migration Period and the spread of PIE is substantiated. In addition the article considers the dynamics of growth and decline of the population of Ancient Rome in the localities from its inception to sunset and transformation. 23.06–16.07.2019.
Short chronology of Ancient Egypt New!!!
The history of Ancient Egypt generated in XIX century, every day finds out all greater discrepancy to modern realities both the newest archeological and tool data, including results of DNA researches of mummies of the Egyptian pharaohs. The chronology of Egypt as whole is considered well investigated and however it has been created for substantiation of an antiquity of Jewish people, instead of for scientific description of one of most ancient terrestrial civilizations. Author's reconstruction of chronology of Ancient Egypt has found out time shift at rate 1780 years in depth of centuries from true dating events. 1-16.06.2019.
Great Tartary or Slavic Empire
The next riddle of world historiography is solved. Present clause is devoted to history and modern condition of one of the most grandiose empires of terrestrial civilization – Great Tartary or Slavic Empires. 04–19.09.2017.
The European Aryans
In present clause the broad audience of the questions connected to probable Aryan origin of various European peoples is considered. Including aspects of possible an Aryan origin of Slavs and prospects of presence by these of special way to world around are considered. 25.02.2017 - 24.03.2017.
Summarizing of Zemsky Sobor 2016 (Land Assembly 2016)
Within the framework of carrying out Zemsky Sobor 2016 (Land Assembly 2016) on elections of Grand Prince of All Russia four Nominees have been put forward. The overwhelming majority of voices have been given for Nominee Grand Prince Valeriy Viktorovich Kubarev. Will of God and decision of participants of Assembly, Zemsky Sobor 2016 has elected lifelong Grand Prince of All Russia Valeriy Viktorovich Kubarev Grand Kubensky Rurikovich. 11.05.2016.
Yaroslavl’s Princes Rurikovich
In clause is described family tree of Grand Princes of Yaroslavl and their descendants, it is the senior branch of the Kin of Russ – Rurikovich, going back to Mstislav Great Monomachos. Kin of the Grand Princes of Yaroslavl have continued by Princes Grand Kubensky – Kubarev. 22.02.2016–11.03.2016.
All truth about Saint Prince Vladimir
In clause the all truth about Saint Prince Vladimir which is ignored Orthodox and Romanov’s historians, communistic historical science and their modern adepts, fabricating myths about Russ with « good intentions » opens without denominations. The kin of Russ - Rurikovich has created Orthodoxy and the Russian statehood, Russian people began to forget about it. Glory to Russ! 07-17.07.2015.
Brief chronology of religions
The report at XXX International conference on problems of the Civilization, 25.04.2015, Moscow, RosNoU. In the clause the final Chronological Tables of Ancient Egypt, Ancient and New Rome, Rome in Italy, Christianity, Islam and Judaism are submitted. 25.04.2015.
Canons of Orthodoxy of XIV century and the present time
The report at XXIX International conference on problems of the Civilization, 20.12.2014, Moscow, RosNoU. In the report the comparative analysis of canons of Orthodoxy of XIV century (1315-1321), displayed on mosaics and frescos of Church of Chorus in Istanbul, and modern doctrines are made. Numerous differences of events of the Holy Legend and the Gospel of the past and the present are found out. 20.12.2014.
Ethnic threats to peoples of Russia
In clause political, economic, cultural and religious aspects of consequences of ethnic opposition of radical peoples of Russia and new coming Slavic population formed as result of violent Slavic expansion in Russia in days of the Mongolian yoke are considered. The historical reasons of occurrence of ethnic contradictions are investigated, estimations of modern condition of problem (Chechelevskaya and Lubotinskaya Republics in 1905, Donetsk national republic and Lugansk national republic in 2014 in territory of Ukraine) are given and offers on decrease in escalation of ethnic opposition in territory of Eurasia are made. 09.06 - 05.07.2014.
Attribution of Rurikovich and Emperors Lecapenus
The report at XXVIII International Conference on problems of the Civilization is 26.04.2014, Moscow, RosNoU. In clause it is described detailed attribution of Ugrian Tsars with Emperors of Ancient and New Rome and Patriarches of terrestrial civilization. It is scientifically proved origins of all patriarches of monotheism and Emperors Flavius and Lecapenus from kint of Ugrian Tsars of Russ (Great), is the ethnic Finn-Ugrian from Volga region. 23.03.2014 – 24.04.2014.
Putin's Eurasian impasse
Vladimir Putin and Uniform Russia realize the Eurasian project, involving Russia and Russian people during stagnation and backlogs from World Civilization. They create Gog and Magog Empire, menacing to world peace. Why the Kremlin authority has not asked Russian Slavs – they want to live in the Asian country or to be safe Europeans? 14-22.01.2014.
Projections of the God in symbols of religion
As result of studying the extensive visual material created by 3D modeling, we have proved existence of uniform source of an origin of Projections of the God, that is religious symbolic of people. The source or quantum object refers to the Chariot of the God. We believe that on the basis of our researches, it will be possible to organize training to travel on the Universe of space navigators from the most gifted people and to create spaceships with engines as the described quantum generator is Chariots of the God or the Chariot of Cube. 25–30.08.2013.
Origin and migration of Slavs
Historical and genetic routes of migrations of the Slavs, calculated with the help from ancient Byzantium, European, Chinese, Arabian, Bulgarian and Russian chronicles and annals, and also modern researches of man's DNA chromosomes. 01-21.05.2013.
Empires of cousins of Russ
The report at scientific XXVI International conference on problems of the Civilization 26-27.04.2013, Moscow, RosNoU. In article five world Empires of cousins of Russ (Great) existing in our era on open spaces of Eurasia with cyclicity of occurrence once in 300 years are described.
Hungarian Kingdom of Russ
It is continuation of research of dynastic communications of Rurikovich. Cousin of Rurik Almysh/Almos and his children Kazan/Kurszan and Arbat/Arpad, it is all ethnic Ugrian of Russ, have based at the end of IX century – beginning of X century the Hungarian kingdom of Russ, having grasped Great Moravia. 08-11.01.2013.
Reconstruction of dynastic communications of Rurikovich in IX-XI centuries
Report at anniversary scientific XXV International conference on problems of civilization at 21-22.12.2012, RosNoU, Moscow. Corrected at 03.01.2013.
Educated Christianity of Russ
Bible – the Old Testament and the New Testament has exhausted itself. Forged the Scripts and the Sacred Legend cannot serve more as a spiritual reference point for promotion of mankind forward on the river of time. It is allowable to use only spiritual – moral potential of the ancient products being product of national creativity of Jews and Catholics, instead of divine revelations. The chronology of Bible events, an ethnic accessory of patriarchs of mankind, names, geography and original languages of heroes of the Bible do not correspond to the validity. Bible miracles have the quantum nature in the basis and submit to laws of a universe. Educated Christianity of Russ restore the religious both destroyed obscurantists religious and scientific knowledge of Christianity and revolutionary role of religion in history of civilization. 26.08. – 12.10.2012.
True Empty Tomb
Nova Church of Sacred Russia and Sacred Russ, Princes of Russia congratulates mankind on presence of True Empty Tomb and restoration of the religious and historical truth. The true has triumphed forever. 20-29.05.2012.
Orthodoxy and Islam in Old Russia
The report at XXIV International scientific conference on problems of the Civilization in Russian New University on April 20-21, 2012.
Day of Church Slavonic writing. Russ Cyril and Methodius.
In this significant holiday of Day of Church Slavonic writing and remembering Equal Apostles Sacred Cyril and Methodius, Princes of Russ convincingly ask Russian Orthodox Church and the public of the orthodox countries to return to sources and correctly to name the writing, language and church books Russian, but not Slavic. Ancient Russia was the Finno-Ugric state created by Russ Christians Rurik and Igor, Cyril and Methodius, Askold and Dir, Prophetic Oleg and Sacred Olga, Sacred Vladimir and Empress Anna Macedonian.
Wars of Russ in IX-XI centuries
In article on a rich actual material it is shown, that all wars of Russ with Byzantium in 836-1043 have been connected to deduction of a throne of empire by Russian party of Constantinople headed by the Macedonian dynasty of Russ. To the author it is proved, that two centuries co-emperors of New Rome were Great Princes Rurikovich. Last Russian emperor Jaroslav Mudry known in Tsar Grad as Constantine Monomakh was. The report at scientific XXII International conference on problems of the Civilization 22-23.04.2011, Moscow, RosNoU.
Genetic distances between cousins Rurikovich
The report at scientific XXII International Conference on problems of the Civilization, on April 22-23, 2011, RosNoU, Moscow, Russia. 24.04.2011.
Slavic-Mongolian invasion to Russia
Results of our research of an origin of Slavs have not simply scientific, but political value. In view of the received data it is necessary to form the weighed policy of interethnic and inter religious attitudes in Russia and the world. The modern hobby of Russian Slavs Rodoverie, the Aries origin and the contemptuous attitude to inhabitants of Central Asia, Caucasus, Mongolia, China and other regions of the world bears a system and logic mistake. Rodoverie in general it is senseless, in fact ancestors Rodoverian in Russia and Ukraine have left Central Asia and were Kirghiz, Altaian’s, Tajik’s, Pashtun’s, Uyghur’s and Juan-Juan, and completely not blond demigods. 12-18.03.2011.
Old Rome and Italic union of the Volga region
The scientific article on an extensive historical material proves that Ancient Rome has been created by Finno-Ugric tribe’s of Italic union of the Volga region (Idel, Bulgar). Italic peoples Vestini (Vesi), Marsi (Merya), Lucani (Lucane), Marrucini (Marri) and others till now live on Volga. Finno-Ugric named Latinas (Latinyanami) German peoples of the Volga region, differently Altyn-ami that means Gold literally. Fortress Alba Longo was called Altynbash, and Volga region Rome – Ulak-Urum. Southwest capital of Finno-Ugric of Idel was city Phanagoria or the Finn–Ugoria, being in antiquities capital Bosporus Empire and Great Bulgaria was. The web of lies of the western falsifiers of history how many would not be twisted, but to it all the same there comes the end. 10-21.02.2011.
We have proved fidelity Bulgarian theory of an origin of mankind. She proves to be true a natural vector of moving of people on a planet from the Volga region in all parties of Eurasia, and there from to Africa, Australia and America. All peoples and races of the world have taken place from Hindi-European, namely – from ethnic Finno-Ugric. 01-07.02.2011.
Correct DNA-Genealogy and glottochronology
Scientific article of Grand Prince Valeriy Kubarev on DNA-Genealogy and glottochronology is submitted to your attention. The author has created formulas with which help it is possible to define precisely time of life of the general ancestor and an epoch of formation of various languages. These formulas have received the name of Kubarev’s formula. With the help of mathematical calculations, Valeriy Kubarev has proved fidelity Barrow of Hypothesis of Maria Gimbutas and own reconstruction of a history of the world. We hope that results of research will find wide application in DNA-Genealogy and glottochronology. 04-14.01.2011.
Genealogy and genetics of Princes of Russia
The report of Grand Prince Valeriy Kubarev at XXI International Conference on problems of the Civilization 25.12.2010. Valeriy Kubarev's scientific article describes genetics of Rurikovich and Sorts of Russia. Grand Prince has scientifically defined modal haplotype of Rurik, Gedimin, Russ Aydar, Kubrat, Flavius and has theoretically described modal haplotype of Alexander Great, Jesus Christ Zlatoust, Prophet Mohammed and Genghis Khan. All these well-known people ethnically Finno-Ugrian from the Sort of Russ. 25.12.2010.
What do we celebrate on November 4? Loss of the national sovereignty...
National voting or voting of national representatives is unacceptable for elections of Tsar and Grand Duke, in fact tsar from the God, and the voice of people is not a voice Divine. Elections of Grand Duke only voting of Princes – patrimonial aristocracy of Russia are possible. 08-21.11.2010.
Turn of the Earth promptly comes nearer
This is article with the analysis of abnormal geophysical and climatic activity on a planet. 09-12.09.2010.
Baltavar – a symbol of Christianity, an Islam and Judaism
Petrarca: « When people will address to the history, his greatness come to live »
History of Russ about 3506 BC till 2012
Kubarev V.V.'s report, History of Russ about 3506 BC till 2012.
Section «Civilization aspects of the Russian history and chronology».
Tenth International scientific conference «Civilization of knowledge: global crisis and an innovative choice of Russia», Moscow, April 24-25, 2009, RosNOU.
Whose fault is it?
Emperors Lekapenos(920–945) New!!!
Based on a thorough analysis of the chronicles of New Rome, Ancient Russia, Great Bulgaria and Arab sources, the author has justified the Finno–Ugric origin of the Macedonian Dynasty and the Lekapenos Dynasty. The details of the biographies, names, dates of rule and family ties of dozens of Emperors, Khagans and Princes of Byzantium, Russ and Bulgar coincide with great accuracy, which makes it possible to identify all the studied personalities with real historical figures. In local chronicles, they have different or identical names, depending on the national characteristics of the nicknames of the studied persons. 07.12.2020–30.01.2021.
Dancing on bones (people losses of USSR in SWW)
We have found out the facts of direct falsification of human losses of military men and civil persons of the USSR within the Second World War in some millions person. Forgery is caused by activity of the propaganda machine of the USSR and false understanding of patriotism in modern Russia. By our calculations true irrevocable losses of the population of the USSR within the SWW make 7.6–8.7 million persons from among military men and the general losses with civil people 12.8–13.9 million persons. Have run away from Stalin paradise of USSR is hundred thousand (up to 1.3 million) the persons. We believe that the name of each victim of war should be taken into account and sounded publicly. 04–18.05.2019.
Territory of negative
The report at XXXVI International conference on problems of the Civilization, 20-21.04.2018, Moscow, RosNoU. As result of centuries-old struggle of the West and the East there was theological incident when the advanced countries call Russia stronghold of evil, and Russia use toga of the defender of the God and Belief, accusing other world in mortal sins. In the report attempt objectively is done to understand that occurs in the historical plan to the population and civilizations on territories of Russia and what forecast it is possible to make on the future. 20-21.04.2018.
Expansion of Rome from Volga region
The report at XXXIII International conference on problems of the Civilization, 24.12.2016, Moscow, RosNoU. In the report the extensive information on resettlement of peoples to Europe through ports of Bosporan Kingdom and Bosporus to the Mediterranean from the Volga region, Siberia and Caucasus during existence of Ancient Rome in delta of the rivers Volga and Akhtuba since VI century B.C. up to middle of VI century is submitted. 24.12.2016.
Seleucus and tribal leaders of Rome
The report at scientific XXXI International Conference on problems of the Civilization has acted on December 26, 2015, RosNoU, Moscow, Russia. In the report the hypothesis that "Macedonian" gains of IV century B.C. actually are the first wave of expansion of Ancient Rome and resettlement of peoples on South, East and West from territory of the Volga region and Caucasus is put forward and proved. 26.12.2015.
Picturesque Gospel of Church of Chora (Kariye) in Istanbul
Research of artifacts of Church of the Christ Savior in Chora (Church of Chorus, XIV century, Istanbul) has allowed restoring overlooked nuances of ancient doctrines of Byzantium Orthodoxy. The numerous facts of distortion Holy Book and Holy Legend have been found out at formation of modern Christian canons which at all are not an inviolable reality from above, and there is product of human creativity. 15.09–08.10.2014.
Images ancient Romans from Volga in artefacts
Long millennia in Idel-Rome-Memphis-Mitsraim-Itil-Saray-Batu lived from 600 000 up to one million person. Ruins of city are grandiose pantry of a history, culture and religion. Masonic scientists diligently avoid carrying out there scale excavation. In those places prospers only black selector of treasures. How long it is possible to hide to world elite of impostors true from people? 20-22.04.2010.
What to do?
Syncing the chronicles of Rome and Egypt New!!!
Based on a thorough analysis of details of military campaigns and astronomical phenomena from the chronicles of Ancient and New Rome, Ancient Egypt and Persian sources, the author confirmed the chronological shift in the history of Ancient Egypt by 1780 years in the past. The author also revealed the complot of historians to conceal the existence of Ancient Egypt in I millennium by masking the deeds of the Egyptian Pharaohs of the New Kingdom for the non-existent activity of the Kings of the Sasanian Empire. 06–29.03.2021.
The identification of the Patriarchs with historical figures New!!!
The author correctly identifies the Patriarchs of monotheistic religions with historical figures of the past based on the paradigm of a short chronology of the world and linking events to unique celestial phenomena reflected in Chronicles and Scriptural. The identification of the Patriarchs is based on the analysis of data from the genealogical trees of Jesus Christ from Lucas, Matthew, mosaics of the Church of Chora, the genealogical tree of the Prophet Muhammad and lists of the Kings of the Great Bulgaria. 21.07–27.08.2020.
We have found out and have proved that at everyone men are two direct lines of Pure Relationship on which in each generation of ancestors he has only one pair pure relatives – the forefather and the foremother. All other ancestors are the listed relatives. We also have proved that each woman has two direct lines of Pure Relationship on which in each generation of ancestors it has only one pair foremothers. On the basis of research we confirm De Facto firmness of the absolute law of succession is rule Lex Salica of Pure Relationship. 05.08 – 03.09.2014.
Thus, genealogic tree of Prophet Mohammed is proved with existence of short chronology of mankind. The history of mankind is based on acts of a dynasty Russian Varyags and Kumirs into which great prophets of mankind entered: Nay (Nuh), Abraham (Ibragim), Ismail, Jacob (Jakub), Tsars Saul-David (Urgan-Kubar/Kubrat), Jesus Christ (Isa) and Prophet Mohammed. 01-02.03.2008.
To be continued...
Thoughts aloud: Religion
Thoughts aloud: Politics
Thoughts aloud: Advice
To be continued...
||Valery KUBAREV > Thoughts aloud: Religion > The red cock in pagan Russia
Dear compatriots! There has come New 2017. Instead of obligatory congratulations I like to pay your attention to spiritual hole in which has slid once orthodox and rich sacred and flatterers Russia.
Ten years in Russia new manner meetings of New Year prospers. It consists in general advertising and propagation of pagan cults of Taoism, Animism and Shinto. This "tradition" began in days of the USSR in 1980th. During the advanced atheism in Russia has appeared and marvelously the pagan, nasty tradition of celebrating of New Year was easily distributed. In its basis the wide meeting of New Year on lunar calendar which, begins only in February.
Within the framework of this barbarous tradition to people suggest to marks year of pig, dog, monkey, etc., or the red cock, as in the come 2017. Mass media give various advice to all desirous – how to dress for New Year, that is and how correctly to mark pagan beliefs of the east. Now for example recommend to not use meat of the chicken and to put on red clothes that mollify the red cock entering the rights in February 2017. From screens of TV, pages of newspapers and magazines cheerful images of the next animals in which protection people should trust look at citizens of Russia. These animals and birds in figures are dressed in traditional Russian clothes.
Russian Orthodox Church asserts that 80 % of the population is orthodox believers. Within the framework of Orthodoxy New Year on January 1, falls at the Christmas fast when it is necessary to behave modestly and to accept only fasting I peep without the use of alcohol. Besides imaginary orthodox Russia break all conceivable and not conceivable religious canons, worshipping spirits of the next animals.
Keepers of spiritual clamps of Russia shut eyes to mass pagan glorification of the Mongolian, Chinese, Korean and Japanese pagan cults. Abuse of homosexual people is 1-2 % of the population for them it is normal, but worship and pagan propaganda among 80 % of the population of Russia is well and fashionably. Freedom and human rights is poorly, but mass paganism in Russia is wonderfully!?
In the civilized Christian world completely there is no displays paganism which has taken roots in Russia. Even in Ukraine worship paganism has not got accustomed. But Russians are ahead of planet of all. How Russian orthodox people were lowered before desecration of the belief and cultural bases? Why so self-identification of the Russian person has easily collapsed?
The answer is not pleasant to the Slavic population. In fact actually Slavs (Haplogroup R1a1) it is lineal descendants of the Mongols conducting the origin from territory of Northern China. These are the fundamental facts confirmed with genetic researches and historical reality. On the grounds of Finno-Ugric and Turkic Russia the Mongolian tribes, which has grown up to half of population of the country have lost the way. The Slav (Slavyanin) literally means Slav Yang Yin is the Mongolian-Chinese spiritual concepts or clamps as the leader of the Russian Mongols likes to speak. In these clamps have genetically come paganism and shamanism, received the second breath within board of communists of the USSR.
In the beginning of XXI century the lost tribe of Mongols wanders across Russia, trying to find the sources and bases of statehood. All country is involved in attempts of former Mongols to be fenced off from the European and Christian values inherent in Finno-Ugric aboriginals of Russia, and also Muslim and Vedas to beliefs of Turkic part of Russian people. Putin's mode for preservation of the authority, instead of strengthening the European choice of Russian people, accompanies Shamanism to traditions of the Slavic majority, rejecting the country in bog of paganism on boondocks of history and civilization.
How long Russian Orthodox Church and Muslim communities will suffer these pagan rites and cults in Russia? The silence they destroy the country and traditions of ancestors.
For eradication of paganism it is necessary to stop resolutely all modern hobbies for east ceremonies and traditions. Including, it is necessary for Russian Orthodox Church to correct the false chronology and to transfer celebrating Christmas for January 1. In fact actually Jesus Christ Zlatoust was born in 980, therefore calculations of orthodox and Catholic theologians are erroneous equally for week, in both parties from true date of Christmas. Overlapping of date of Christmas happy New Year will finish with mass infringement of the Christmas post and will reject the pagan cults of Russian people connected to heritage of the barbarous east.
Will suffice to transform Russia into an Empire of Evil – Empire of Gog and Magog!
Grand Prince and Pontifex Maximus,
Professor of theology Dr. Valeriy Viktorovich Kubarev,